Location of Repository

Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age : a longitudinal study

By Kati Heinonen, Katri Raikkonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Sture Andersson, Eero Kajantie, Johan Eriksson, Dieter Wolke and Aulikki Lano

Abstract

Background\ud It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children.\ud \ud Methods\ud A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses.\ud \ud Results\ud Neither prematurity (birth<37 weeks of gestation) nor lower gestational age was associated with ADHD symptoms. However, small for gestational age (SGA<-2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for weight at birth) status and lower birth weight SD score were significantly, and independently of gestational age, associated with higher ADHD symptoms. Those born SGA, relative to those born AGA, were also 3.60-times more likely to have ADHD symptoms scores above the clinical cut-off. The associations were not confounded by factors implicated as risks for pregnancy and/or ADHD.\ud \ud Conclusions\ud Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children

Topics: RJ
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3884

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2008). A: Prenatal and postnatal growth and cognitive abilities at 56 months of age: a longitudinal study of infants born at term. Pediatrics doi
  2. (2005). AM: Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method. Brain doi
  3. (2004). Borawski E: Behavioral outcomes and evidence of psychopathology among very low birth weight infants at age 20 years. Pediatrics doi
  4. (2005). Brubakk AM: Psychiatric symptoms in low birth weight adolescents, assessed by screening questionnaires. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry doi
  5. (2006). Castellanos FX: Brain development and ADHD. Clin Psychol Rev
  6. (1970). Clinical assessment of gestational age in the newborn infant. doi
  7. (1989). Conners' Hyperactivity Index Totonto: Multi-Health Systems Inc.;
  8. (2009). Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD? J Atten Disord doi
  9. (2008). Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth. Lancet doi
  10. (2001). et al: Behavioural problems in children who weigh 1000 g or less at birth in four countries. Lancet doi
  11. (2005). Faraone SV: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet doi
  12. (2004). Gjedde A: ADHD: increased dopamine receptor availability linked to attention deficit and low neonatal cerebral blood flow. Dev Med Child Neurol doi
  13. (2008). How is maternal recollection of the birth experience related to the behavioral and emotional outcome of preterm infants? Early Hum Dev doi
  14. (2004). Huppi PS: Early alteration of structural and functional brain development in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res doi
  15. (2008). Huppi PS: Intrauterine growth restriction affects the preterm infant's hippocampus. Pediatr Res doi
  16. (1954). I: The Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (manual).
  17. (2003). Learning, cognitive, and attentional problems in adolescents born small for gestational age. Pediatrics doi
  18. (2006). Longitudinal changes in family outcomes of very low birth weight. J Pediatr Psychol doi
  19. (1987). McKnap P: Relationship between scores on the general purpose abbreviated battery of Standford-Binet IV, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-revised, Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. Psychol Record
  20. (2009). N: Behavioral outcomes of extremely low birth weight children at age 8 years. J Dev Behav Pediatr doi
  21. (1995). Österlund K: Die Entwicklung gefährdet geborener Kinder bis zum funften Lebensjahr. [The development of children born at risk until their fifth year of life.] Stuttgart: Fernind Enke Verlag;
  22. (2006). Prematurity stereotyping and mothers' interactions with their premature and full-term infants during the first year. J Pediatr Psychol
  23. (2010). Psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children: longitudinal finding at age 11 years in the EPICure study. doi
  24. (1989). Raivio K: [Characteristic of recent fetal growth curves in Finland]. Duodecim
  25. (2002). Sillanpaa M: Academic achievement of small-for-gestational-age children at age 10 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med doi
  26. (2006). Small body size at birth and behavioural symptoms of ADHD in children aged five to six years. doi
  27. (2008). Specific language difficulties and school achievement in children born at 25 weeks of gestation or less. doi
  28. (2006). TB: Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder. Arch Dis Child
  29. (2002). The Value of Neonatal Neurological Assessment in Predicting Neurodevelopmental Problems at Preschool Age.
  30. (1998). Tsang RC: Biological mechanisms of environmentally induced causes of IUGR.
  31. (2008). Very low birth weight and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood: the Helsinki study of very-low-birth-weight adults. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.