Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Bullies in Greek Cypriot state primary schools : a problem or a challenge?

By Chrystalla A. Kaloyirou


Bullying in State Greek Cypriot Primary Schools has been receiving a\ud subsequent media attention in recent years. However, there is still not adequate\ud research evidence on this issue. This study is an attempt to examine whether\ud bullying could be considered as a form of aggressive behaviour, to investigate\ud the situation in State Greek Primary Schools in Cyprus and to examine the\ud developmental history, the psychological and social characteristics of nine 11-\ud year-old bullies in State Greek Cypriot Primary Schools. These investigations\ud were undertaken on the basis of four models: the Proposed Model of Aggression,\ud the Model of the Empirical Work, the Model of Parents’ Perceptions about the\ud bullies or bullying and the Model of the Teachers’ Perceptions about bullies or\ud bullying.\ud The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods and comprised\ud two stages. In Stage 1 a survey was undertaken of the teachers’ perceptions about\ud bullying in 29 state primary schools in Nicosia. Pupil perceptions were surveyed\ud in three schools where the levels of bullying seemed to be higher than in the rest\ud of the schools. In Stage 2 a sample of 9 boys were identified as bullies from these\ud 3 schools with high levels of bullying and these formed the case studies. An\ud investigation of the nine boys’ developmental history, psychological and social\ud characteristics was undertaken through interviewing their parents, teachers and\ud peers and by the use of standardised tests and role play.\ud This investigation of the nine case studies provided support for the view that\ud bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour as all the factors that are reported in\ud the relevant literature about aggression seem to play a role in its development,\ud albeit to a different extent and in different combinations in the nine bullies.\ud Moreover, bullying was found to occur in all State Greek Cypriot Primary\ud Schools regardless of the social background of the school. Many factors related\ud to the bullies’ psychological and social characteristics are involved in an act of\ud bullying and consequently each has to be seriously taken into consideration, both\ud individually and in combination, in any effort aiming at the prevention or\ud inhibition of the problem in schools

Topics: LB
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1892) “Psychology: The briefer course”, doi
  2. (1986). (Ed.) “The Selected Melanie Klein”, London: Penguin Books.324 Monbusho [Ministry of education]
  3. (1996). A comparison of aggressive-rejected children’s interpretations of self-directed and other-directed rejection”, doi
  4. (1999). A developmental perspective of Peer Rejection: doi
  5. (2000). A pragmatic approach to medication”. In
  6. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information –processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment”, doi
  7. (1956). A study of envy and gratitude”. In doi
  8. (1967). About losing and being lost”.
  9. (2003). Activation of serotonergic neurotransmission during the performance of aggressive behaviour in rats”, doi
  10. (2000). Age and gender differences in oppositional behaviour and conduct problems: a crosssectional household study of middle childhood and adolescence”, doi
  11. (1997). Aggression and its causes: A biopsychosocial Approach”, doi
  12. (1978). Aggression in the schools: bullies and whipping boys”, doi
  13. (2002). Aggression to dummy cuckoos by potential European cuckoo hosts”, doi
  14. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis”, Engelwood Cliffs, doi
  15. (1993). Aggression: its causes, consequences and control”, doi
  16. (2003). Aggressive behaviour of epilepsy patients in the course of levetiracetam add-on317 therapy: report of 33 mild to severe cases”, doi
  17. (1996). Aggressive boys’ hostile perceptual and response biases: The role of attention and impulsivity”, Child Development, doi
  18. (1986). Altruism and aggression: The heritability of individual differences”, doi
  19. (2000). An integrated Model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing”, doi
  20. (2003). An Oxytocin Antagonist infused into the central nucleus of the amygdala increases maternal aggressive behaviour”,Behavioural doi
  21. (2002). Antipredator response to injury- released chemical alarm cues by convict cichlid young before and after independence from parental protection”, doi
  22. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: a philosophic and practical guide”,
  23. (1967). Behaviour disorders and pattern of crime among XYY males identified at a maximum security hospital”, doi
  24. (2000). Behavioural Analysis”. In doi
  25. (1996). Behavioural characteristics of defence and vigilance reactions elicited by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in rabbits”, doi
  26. (2002). Behavioural responses to conspecific disturbance chemicals enhance survival of juvenile brook charr, Salvelinus Fontinalis, during encounters with predators”, doi
  27. (1920). Beyond the Pleasure Principle”, doi
  28. (1996). Breaking the circle of violence: interventions for bullying and victimization”, doi
  29. (1998). Broadcast television as a cause of aggression? Recent findings from a naturalistic study”, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A peer reviewed journal, doi
  30. (1996). Bullies and victims in schools in central and southern Italy”, doi
  31. (1989). Bullies and victims in schools”, Milton Keynes:
  32. (2001). Bullies: Thugs or thinkers?”,
  33. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck's personality dimensions in 8-13 year-olds”, doi
  34. (1998). Bullying among Italian middle school students”, doi
  35. (2001). Bullying among primary school children in Athens”, doi
  36. (1993). Bullying and how to fight it: a guide for families”, Scottish Council for Research in Education.
  37. (2003). Bullying and the Big Five: A study of childhood personality and participant roles in bullying incidents”, doi
  38. (1996). Bullying as a group process. Participant roles and their relations to social status within a group”, doi
  39. (1995). Bullying at school: A Canadian perspective”,
  40. (1993). Bullying at school”, doi
  41. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence”, doi
  42. (1991). Bullying: a child’s view”, London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
  43. (1994). Bullying/victim problems in middle school children: Stability, self- perceived competence, peer perceptions and peer acceptance”, doi
  44. (1991). Can the Mario Bros help? Nintendo games as an adjunct in psychotherapy with children”, doi
  45. (1991). Characteristics of aggressors against women: Testing a model using a national sample of college students”, doi
  46. (1996). Children and domestic violence: a review”, doi
  47. (2000). Children and young people and care proceedings”. doi
  48. (1990). Children of battered women”, doi
  49. (1993). Children’s abilities to distinguish between playful and aggressive fighting: A developmental perspective”, doi
  50. (1981). Children’s social competence in peer relations: Sociometric and behavioural assessment”.
  51. (1997). Children’s solutions to bullying incidents”,
  52. (1994). Chronic adversities”. In
  53. (1992). Cohesion and power in families of children involved in bully/victim problems at school”, doi
  54. (1996). Cohesion and power in the families of children involved in bullying/victim problems at school”, doi
  55. (2001). Components of machiavellian beliefs in children: relationships with personality”, Personality and individual differences, 30, doi
  56. (1997). Conceptual and ethical problems raised by the study of BrainBehaviour relationships underlying aggression”. doi
  57. (1999). Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children’s playground behaviour and social preference, victimisation and bullying”, doi
  58. (1998). Contrasting Expressions of aggressive behaviour released by lesions of the central nucleus system of the amygdala during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in cats”, doi
  59. (1989). Coping with parental quarrels”, doi
  60. (2003). Different forms of aggression among inner-city African-american children: Gender, configurations and school social networks”, doi
  61. (2000). Disruptive behaviour, avoidance of responsibility and theory of mind”, doi
  62. (1998). Domestic styles of female and male doi
  63. (1999). Domestic violence in Greece”,
  64. (1998). Early social environment and the fighting behaviour of young oreochromis niloticus (Pisces cichlidae)”, doi
  65. (2004). Education and Culture doi
  66. (2003). Effects of acute treatment with 8-OH-DPAT and fluoxetine on aggressive behaviour in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia morphna)”, doi
  67. (1999). Effects of poverty on academic failure and delinquency in boys: a change and process model approach”, doi
  68. (1998). Effects of serotonergic drugs on literalised aggression and aggressive displays in Anolis Carolinensis”, doi
  69. (1987). Effects of viewing aggressive cartoons on the behaviour of learning disabled children”, doi
  70. (1995). Ending the cycle of violence: community responses to children of battered women”, doi
  71. (1997). Engagement in gender normative versus non-normative forms of aggression: Links to social- psychological adjustment”, doi
  72. (1990). Factors protecting children living in disharmonious homes: Maternal reports”, doi
  73. (1994). Family trauma and dysfunction in sexually abused female adolescent psychiatric and control groups”, doi
  74. (1999). Father and mother physical abuse and child aggressive behaviour in two generations”, doi
  75. (1939). Frustration and aggression”, doi
  76. (1989). Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis. Examination and Reformation”, doi
  77. (1996). Gender differences in children’s normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt Thee? Let me count the ways”, Child Development, doi
  78. (2000). General Information about the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, PC program and teacher handbook”, Personal Notes. doi
  79. (1981). Genetic variability in aggression and endocrine function in inbred strains of mice”.
  80. (1997). Greek WISC III: Wechsler I.Q. Scales for Children: Manual”, Athens: Ellinika Grammata.
  81. (2002). Hormones and aggression in childhood and adolescence”, Aggression and Violent Behaviour, doi
  82. (1990). Human Aggression”, Milton Keynes:
  83. (2003). Human impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective”, doi
  84. (1909). Human nature and the social order”, doi
  85. (1936). Identification with the aggressor”.
  86. (1991). Intergenerational transmission of harsh parenting”, doi
  87. (2000). Intermittent explosive disorder”, doi
  88. (2002). Intraspecific agonistic interactions of squilla empusa (crustacea stomatopoda), doi
  89. (1997). Is predatory behaviour a model of complex forms of human aggression?”. doi
  90. (1999). It takes two to fight: a test of relational factors and a method for assessing aggressive dyads”, doi
  91. (1986). La pulsion de mort”, doi
  92. (1997). Learning aggression from models: from a social learning toward a cognitive theory of modelling”. doi
  93. (1993). Long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Perceived family environment, psychopathology and dissociation”, doi
  94. (1971). Love and Hate: on the natural history of basic behaviour patterns”, doi
  95. (1985). Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for children: Revision of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children”,
  96. (1979). Manual: Perceived Competence Scale for children”, doi
  97. (2003). Marital relationship and individual psychological characteristics that predict physical punishment of children”, doi
  98. (1996). Media violence and adolescent developmental issues”, doi
  99. (2000). Media violence”, doi
  100. (2003). Modifying Social Aggression in School”,
  101. (2002). Mother’s and father’s parental adjustment: Links to externalising behaviour problems in sons and daughters”, doi
  102. (1996). Neurotransmitter and endocrine modulation of aggressive behaviour and its components in normal humans”, doi
  103. (1949). Notes on aggression”.
  104. (1946). Notes on some schizoid mechanisms”. In
  105. (1951). Observations on child development”. doi
  106. (1998). Oldfactory recognition of urine signals in dominance fights between male lobster, doi
  107. (1966). On Aggression”,
  108. P.D.(2003) “Predicting preschooler’s externalising behaviours from toddler temperament, conflict and maternal negativity”, doi
  109. (1992). Parental Influence on children’s selfestimated aggressiveness”, doi
  110. (1994). Parenting and family stress as mediators of longterm effects of child abuse”, doi
  111. (1998). Parenting and school bullying”, doi
  112. (2000). Parents’ and Partners’ life course and family experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings”, doi
  113. (1996). Patterns of psychopathology among urban poor children: comorbidity and aggression effects”, doi
  114. (1992). Peer rejection from kindergarten to grade 2: Outcomes, correlates and prediction”, doi
  115. (1990). Peer status and aggression in boys’ groups: developmental and contextual analysis”, doi
  116. (1990). Peers’ perceptions of the consequences that victimised children provide aggressors”, doi
  117. (2000). Perceived maternal control and support as predictors of hostile-based attribution of intent and response selection in aggressive boys”, doi
  118. (2001). Perceived maternal control and support: effects on hostile biased social information processing and aggression among clinic-referred children with high aggression”, doi
  119. (1980). Personal Construct Psychology”. doi
  120. (1999). Personal Construct theory in educational psychology: A practitioner’s view”,
  121. (1983). Personality differences in high and low electronic video game users”, doi
  122. (1997). Physical punishment of children in two-parent families”, doi
  123. (1996). Physical violence and other forms of marital aggression: Links with children’s behavioural problems”, doi
  124. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorders”.
  125. (2002). Predatory plasticity in nephilengys cruentata (Araneane: tetragnathidae) : relevance for phylogeny recontruction”, doi
  126. (1999). Predicting boys’ social acceptance and aggression: The role of mother-child interactions and the boys’ perceptions about peers”, doi
  127. (2003). Prednisone therapy in pediatric epilepsy”, doi
  128. (2003). Preventing school violence by promoting wellness”,
  129. (1992). Psychoanalytic views of aggression: some theoretical problems”, doi
  130. (1997). Psychological assessment and monitoring of violent children and adolescents”.
  131. (1997). Psychometric properties of family members’ reports of parental physical aggression toward clinic referred children”, doi
  132. (1976). Psychopathology seen against the background of normal development”. doi
  133. (1993). Real world research: A resource of social scientists and practitioner-researchers”, doi
  134. (2000). Researching children’s perspectives: ethical issues”. In
  135. (2003). Resistance to Violence Prevention Interventions in Schools: Barriers and Solutions”,
  136. (1964). Ritualised fighting”.
  137. (2003). School Violence, Depression and Suicide”, doi
  138. (1995). Secondary losses for siblings”, doi
  139. (1998). Selected Writings: doi
  140. (1991). Self-conscious emotions and the development of the self”, doi
  141. (1996). Serum testosterone in violent and non-violent young offenders”, doi
  142. (1999). Serum testosterone levels, mental disorders and criminal behaviour”, doi
  143. (1992). Sibling and peer relationships in childhood”, doi
  144. (1986). Sibling Quarrels and maternal intervention: individual differences in understanding and aggression”, doi
  145. (2003). Simultaneous risks and differences among individual predators affect refuge use by a lizard, doi
  146. (1999). Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled manipulation?”, doi
  147. (2000). Social competition in school: Relationships with bullying, Machiavellianism and personality”, doi
  148. (1992). Social information processing in aggressive and depressed children”, doi
  149. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression”, doi
  150. (2000). Social intelligence minus empathy = aggression? doi
  151. (1996). Social interactions and two sympratic salamanders: effectiveness of a highly aggressive strategy”, doi
  152. (1985). Sociological Study of the structure of bullying group”,
  153. (1998). Sociometric-status- group classification of mainstream children who have moderate learning difficulties: An investigation of personal and environmental factors”, doi
  154. (1992). Some consequences of early harsh discipline: child aggression and a maladaptive social information processing style”, doi
  155. (1990). Spotlight 23 “Bulling in Scottish Secondary schools”,
  156. (2003). Stopping School Violence”,
  157. (1995). Stressful events and individual beliefs as correlates of economic disadvantage and aggression among urban children”, doi
  158. (2003). Strong genetic effects on cross situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins’ self-reports”, doi
  159. (1994). Tackling Bullying in Your School: A practical handbook for teachers”, doi
  160. (1999). Take the violent toys from the boys? Desire of containment and the containment of desire”, doi
  161. (2002). Testosterone versus psychological castration in the expression of dominance, territoriality and breeding behaviour by male village weavers (Ploceus cucullatus)”, doi
  162. (1998). Testosterone, Physical aggression, Dominance and physical development in early adolescence”, doi
  163. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness”, doi
  164. (2001). The association of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with temperament in 12-month-oldinfants”, doi
  165. (2002). The challenge of diversity in doi
  166. (1998). The Child Within: The Exploration of Personal Construct Theory within Young People”,
  167. (1955). The concept of the rejecting mother”.
  168. (1999). The Construction of the self: A developmental Perspective”,
  169. (1983). The development of aggression”.
  170. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century?”, doi
  171. (1997). The early socialization of aggressive victims of bullying”, doi
  172. (1995). The effect of video games on feelings of aggression”, doi
  173. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children”, doi
  174. (1968). The evaluation of Personal Constructs”, doi
  175. (1999). The extent and nature of bullying among primary and secondary schoolchildren”, doi
  176. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis”, doi
  177. (1974). The genesis of aggressive criminality: Implications of a study of crime in a Danish twin study”. In
  178. (1995). The genetics of criminal and anti-social behaviour”,
  179. (1997). The influence of the postnatal maternal environment in accounting for differences in aggression and behavioural strategies in mus domesticus”, doi
  180. (1995). The intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment: a comparison of social learning and temperament models”, doi
  181. (1936). The mechanisms of defence”.
  182. (2003). The nature of school bullying and the effectiveness of school-based interventions”,
  183. (1999). The nature of school bullying: A cross national perspective, doi
  184. (1982). The Perceived Competence Scale for Children”, doi
  185. (1955). The psychoanalytic play technique: Its history and significance”. In
  186. (1976). The psychobiology of aggression”, doi
  187. (1999). The psychological impact of war and the refugee situation on South Sudanese children in refugee camps in Northern Uganda: An exploratory study”, doi
  188. (1926). The psychological principles of infant analysis”.
  189. (1997). The psychology of aggression: insights and issues”. doi
  190. (1961). The Psychology of Aggression”, doi
  191. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs”, doi
  192. (1969). The psychotherapeutic relationship”. In
  193. (2001). The relationship between testosterone and aggression: a meta- analysis”, doi
  194. (1996). The revised Bully/Victim Questionnaire for Students”, doi
  195. (2003). The risks and alternatives to physical punishment use with children”, doi
  196. (1952). The role of bodily illness in the Mental Life of Children”.
  197. (2000). The role of proactive and reactive aggression in the formation and development of boys’ friendships”, doi
  198. (1998). The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls”, doi
  199. (1928). The selected Melanie Klein, London: Penguin Books,
  200. (2001). The Self-Image Profile for Children (SIP-C)”,
  201. (1970). The symptomatology of childhood”. In
  202. (1998). The territory defence function of song in song sparrows: A test with the speaker occupation design”, doi
  203. (2003). The Violence in Our Schools: What can a psychoanalytically Informed Approach Contribute?”,
  204. (1997). The violent adolescent: The urge to destroy versus the urge to feel alive”,
  205. (1995). Torn in two: The experience of maternal ambivalence”, doi
  206. (1991). Towards reducing bullying in schools”,
  207. (2002). Treatment of psychosis, aggression and irritability in patients with epilepsy”, doi
  208. (1995). Two approaches to the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in infancy and early childhood”, doi
  209. (1993). Understanding and managing bullying”,
  210. (1999). United States”. In doi
  211. (1998). Use of sociometric techniques to assess the social status of mainstreamed children with learning difficulties”, doi
  212. (1999). Using personal Construct Psychology with pupils who experience doi
  213. (1997). Victims of disaster, war, violence or homicide: psychological effects on siblings”, doi
  214. (1994). Video violence and the protection of children”, doi
  215. (2001). War exposure and maternal reactions in the psychological adjustment of children from BosniaHercegovina”, doi
  216. (1992). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children”, 3 rd Edition, doi
  217. (1997). When individual child psychotherapy exacerbates family systems problems in child abuse cases: A clinical analysis”, doi
  218. (1996). When words fail: a personal construct approach to children’s construing”,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.