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The development of university-level distance education in the context of Hong Kong's transition from a British colony to a special administrative region of China

By Wing-chung Leung

Abstract

China resumed sovereignty over Hong Kong on I July, 1997. After being a British\ud colony for more than 150 years, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region\ud of China following the "one country, two systems" policy. This dissertation is\ud concerned with the examination of the market changes in Hong Kong's university\ud distance education in the transition period.\ud Information about respondents' demographics, evaluation and intention to pursue\ud further study through distance education programmes was collected by sending\ud questionnaires to two types of subject: current students using distance education\ud programmes and potential adult students in Hong Kong. A total of five groups were\ud identified as representing the first type of subject: students of the Henley Management\ud College/Brunel University (UK) - MBA programme, the Curtin University of\ud Technology - Bachelor of Commerce and Master of Accounting programme\ud (Australia), and the Open University of Hong Kong - Bachelor of Business\ud Administration and MBA programmes. The second type of subject comprised Hong\ud Kong adults who were interested in studying via distance education programmes. One\ud group of subjects were visitors to the Hong Kong Education Expo 1996, and they\ud were classified as potential students who wished to study in distance education\ud programmes in Hong Kong.\ud All the data were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software\ud programme. The research questions were tackled by the resultant data and analysis.\ud The important findings obtained from the subjects are:\ud a) The need for higher-degree-level programmes is very great among Hong Kong's\ud distance learners. The decision to undertake further study to distance Master\ud degree level after completing a distance Bachelor degree aptly demonstrates this\ud situation. Consideration should, therefore, be given to developing distance Master\ud degree programmes for students currently studying distance Bachelor degree\ud programmes, and distance Doctorate degree programmes for students currently\ud studying distance Master degree programmes. The majority of distance students,\ud particularly at the higher-degree-level, tend to be in the higher-income bracket.\ud b) Hong Kong adults who are interested in distance education programmes come\ud from different occupation segments. Their choice of further study varies according\ud to their needs and occupations. Consideration should be given to repositioning the\ud current distance education programmes, particularly at Bachelor's degree or\ud Diploma level. In addition, a segment comprising housewives has been identified\ud as potential students for Bachelor's degree programmes by this study.\ud In the further discussion about Hong Kong during the transition period, Fägerlind and\ud Saha's Dialectical Model is used to examine the development of Hong Kong's higher\ud education system with three important dimensions: political, economic and social\ud forces. Finally, this analysis provides three possible alternatives of development for\ud the integration of Hong Kong's and China's higher education systems in the post-transition\ud period: "One Country, One System", "One Country, Two Systems", and\ud "One Country, Many Systems"

Topics: LB2300
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:3983

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  1. (more than 4 years) 7. Would you prefer to have content on China in the new programme?
  2. (please specify: years) -346- Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance Master degree programme do you think is most suitable for you?
  3. (please specify: years) -352- Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance MBA programme do you think is most suitable for you?
  4. 000 4. For the whole programme of a distance MBA in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate complete length of study?
  5. 000 to HK.
  6. 1 am not certain (No need to answer Question 9. ) 9. Which one of the following is the most likely factor that your employer rates distance degree programmes lower than ftill-time degree programmes?
  7. 1 am not certain (No need to answer Question 9. ) 9. Which one of the following is the most likely factor that your employer rates distance degree programmes lower than full-time degree programmes?
  8. 1 am not certain (No need to answer Question 9. ) 9. Which one of the following is the most likely factor that your employer rates distance MBA programmes lower than full-time MBA programmes?
  9. 1 am not sure (Go to Question 13 -353- 12. If the current higher education system of Hong Kong were changed after 1997, which country's higher education system should Hong Kong follow? Australia's higher education system
  10. 1 am not sure 10. If the current higher education system of Hong Kong were changed after 1997, which country's higher education system should Hong Kong follow?
  11. 1 am not sure 14. In your opinion, which are the most likely classes of people who would study a distance education programme in China?
  12. 1 am not sure 8. Does your employer rate the distance degree programmes lower than the full-time degree programmes?
  13. 1 am not sure Does your employer rate the distance Master degree programmes lower than the full-time Master degree programmes?
  14. 1 am not sure in your opinion, which are the most likely classes of people who would study a distance Master degree programme
  15. 1, 'Post-Mao Reforms in Chinese Education: Can the Ghosts of the Past be laid to RestT,
  16. 1%, 000 5. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  17. 160,000 4. For the whole programme of a distance Master degree in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate complete length of study?
  18. 160,1000 6. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  19. 1605000 6. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  20. 1605000 If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  21. 160ý000 6. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  22. 300! ý000 (6) Other (Please specify: 7. the kind of industry that your employer's organisation engages in.
  23. 50 or over 3. your education level. (the highest attainment only.
  24. 50 or over 3. your education level. (the highest attainment only. ) M- Secondary level or below
  25. A mixed system: HK's system together with that of another (Please specify the country Do you agree that the distance Master degree programme you are studying is an effective management training programme for China's students?
  26. A mixed system: HK's system together with that of another (Please specify the country: _____ 13 Do you agree that the distance MBA programme you are studying is an effective management training programme for China's students? (0- Yes,, the reason
  27. A mixed system: HK's system together with that of another (Please specify the country: 13. Do you agree that the distance education programme you are studying is an effective management training programme for China's students?
  28. am not certain (No need to answer Question 7. ) 7. Which one of the following is the most likely factor that your employer rates distance education programmes lower than full-time programmes? M- Academic level University status Government recognition
  29. am not certain (No need to answer Question 9. ) Which one of the following is the most likely factor that your employer rates distance Master degree programmes lower than full-time programmes?
  30. am not sure (Go to Question 13 -335- 12. if the current higher education system of Hong Kong were changed after 1997, which country's higher education system should Hong Kong follow? Australia's higher education system China's higher education system
  31. am not sure (Go to Question 13 -341- 12. if the current higher education system of Hong Kong were changed after 1997, which country's higher education system should Hong Kong follow?
  32. am not sure 14. in your opinion, which are the most likely classes of people who would study a distance MBA programme
  33. am not sure 8. Does your employer grade the distance MBA programmes lower than the full-time MBA programmes?
  34. am not sure 8. Does your employer rate distance degree programmes lower than the full-time degree programmes?
  35. am not sure 8. Does your employer rate the distance MBA programmes lower than the full-time MBA programmes?
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  42. China's higher education system
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  44. Chinese and English together 6. Which kind of accompanying support from the distance education institution do you think is most necessary for you? M- Local study centre with local tutorial support
  45. Chinese and English together Which kind of accompanying support from the distance education institution do you think is most necessary for you? M- Local study centre with local tutorial support
  46. (1993). Chinese Communist Politics: Selected Studies,
  47. Computer facilities linked to the Institution
  48. Computer facilities with access to the Institute's library
  49. Course fee (for the whole programme)
  50. (1992). Cultural Tradition and Educational Modemisation: Lessons from the Republican Era',
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  52. Degree level (Please specify the subject: ___
  53. (1997). degree programme, e. g. Doctor of Business Administration Will the current higher education system of Hong Kong be changed after Hong Kong becomes a Special Administrative Region of China in
  54. Diploma level (Please specify the subject:
  55. Diploma level (Please specify the subject: Degree level (Please specify the subject: Master level (Please specify the subject: Doctorate level (Please specify the subject:
  56. Distance education programme in Hong Kong,
  57. (1991). Distance Teaching at University Level: Historical Perspective and Potential',
  58. (1997). Doctorate degree programme, e. g. Doctor of Business Administration U. Will the current higher education system of Hong Kong be changed after Hong Kong becomes a Special Administrative Region of China in
  59. (1997). Doctorate degree programme, e. g. Doctor of Business Administration Will the current higher education system of Hong Kong be changed after Hong Kong becomes a Special Administrative Region of China in
  60. e. g. accountant or engineer 4. your occupation.
  61. (1993). Education and Society in Hong Kong: Toward One Country and Two Systems, (Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  62. English together 4. Which kind of accompanying support from the distance education institution do you think is most necessary for you?
  63. English together 6. Which kind of accompanying support from the distance education institution do you think is most necessary for you?
  64. English together 6. Which kind of accompanying support from the distance education institution do you think is most necessary for you? M- Local study centre, with local tutorial support
  65. (1996). Facets of the Crisis in Institutions of Higher Learning',
  66. Female 2. your age.
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  69. (1997). Government Information Office,
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  71. HK$ 160,000 4. For the whole programme of a distance MBA in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate complete length of study?
  72. HK$ 160ý000 4. For the whole programme of a distance education in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate complete length of study?
  73. HK$ 160ý000 4. For the whole programme of a distance education in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate complete length of study? k I)_ I year
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  80. I am not sure (Go to Question 13. ) -347- if the current higher education system of Hong Kong were changed after 1997, which country's higher education system should Hong Kong follow?
  81. import & export trade, restaurants & hotels
  82. insurance, real estate and business services
  83. (1953). Kong: Dilemmas of -Growth,
  84. level (Please specify the subject: _______
  85. Local full-time on campus,
  86. Local part-time evening on campus,
  87. Local part-time evening on campus, e. g.
  88. Local study centre with local tutorial support
  89. Managers in private companies or joint venture companies
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  93. (1991). New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution, (The Council on East Asian Studies,
  94. No need to answer Question 7.
  95. No need to answer Question 9.
  96. No your current annual income (in one year), including housing allowance and bonus.
  97. Operative/techn i cal/ski I led workers
  98. or over 3. your education level. (the highest attainment only.
  99. or over your education level. (the highest attainment only.
  100. Other factors (Please specify: 2. Which one of the following is the most important aspect for you in choosing a distance education programme in Hong Kong?
  101. Other factors (Please specify: 2. Which one of the following is the most important aspect for you in choosing a distance Master degree programme in Hong Kong?
  102. Other factors (Please specify: 2. Which one of the following is the most important aspect for you in choosing a distance MBA programme in Hong Kong?
  103. Other factors (Please specify: 2. Which one of the following is the most important aspect for you in choosing a distance NIBA programme in Hong Kong?
  104. Over F1K$ 1601,000 6. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate length of study?
  105. Overseas full-time on campus, e. g. The University of Warwick If you are considering studying a new programme, which of the following countries' programmes would you prefer?
  106. Overseas full-time on campus, e. g. University of Warwick 4. If you are considering studying a new programme, which of the following countries' programmes would you prefer?
  107. Overseas full-time on campus, e. g. University of Warwick 4. if you are considering studying a new programme, which of the following countries' programmes would you prefer? M- Australian programmes
  108. Overseas full-time on campus, e. g. University of Warwick If you are considering studying a new programme, which of the following countries' programmes would you prefer? M- Australian programmes
  109. Please specify the country: 4. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate level of course fee for a whole programme?
  110. Please specify the country: 5. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate level of course fee for a whole programme?
  111. Please specify the country: 5. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate level of course fee for a whole programme? (0- Below F1K$ 7%,
  112. Please specify the country: 5. If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate level of course fee for a whole programme? (0- Below HK$
  113. Please specify the country: If you are considering studying a new programme, what would be the most appropriate level of course fee for a whole programme?
  114. Please specify: _ 10. Which one of the following is the most useful type of programme for Hong Kong's employees to upgrade their qualifications in the near future? (0- Sub-degree programmes, such as certificate or diploma level
  115. please specify: __ 3. For the whole programme of a distance MBA in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate level of course fee? (0- Below HK$
  116. Please specify: _____ if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer?
  117. Please specify: ______ 3. if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer? (0- Local full-time on campus, e. g. The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  118. Please specify: ________ 7. Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance degree programme and job promotion?
  119. Please specify: _________ Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance Master degree programme and job promotion?
  120. Please specify: 10. Which one of the following is the most useful type of programme for Hong Kong's employees to upgrade their qualifications in the near future?
  121. Please specify: 5. whether your current job requires you to work in the People's Republic of China
  122. Please specify: 5. whether your current job requires you to work in the People's Republic of China (China).
  123. Please specify: 7, Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance MBA programme and job promotion? (0- Yes, the reason
  124. Please specify: 7. Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance MBA programme and job promotion? M- Yes, the reason
  125. Please specify: 7. the kind of industry that your employer's organisation engages in.
  126. Please specify: if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer? (0- Local full-time on campus, e. g. The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  127. Please specify: programme in China?
  128. Please specify: the kind of industry that your employer's organisation engages in.
  129. Please specify: whether your current job requires you to work in the People's Republic of China
  130. Please specify: Which one of the following is the most useful type of programme for Hong Kong's employees to upgrade their qualifications in the near future?
  131. Please specify8. Which one of the following is the most useful type of programme for Hong Kong's employees to upgrade their qualifications in the near future?
  132. Professional examination programme, such as those for HKSA
  133. Professional qualification (Please specify the subject: ___ (6)__- Other (Please specify: 3. if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer?
  134. Professional qualification (Please specify the subject: __________ (6)_ Other (Please specify: ____ 3. if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer?
  135. Professional qualification (Please specify the subject: __--------
  136. Professional qualifications, e. g. accountant or engineer 4. your occupation.
  137. programme,
  138. (1997). programme, e. g. Doctor of Business Administration 9. Will the current higher education system of Hong Kong be changed after Hong Kong becomes a Special Administrative Region of China in
  139. (1997). programme, e. g. Doctor of Business Administration Will the current higher education system of Hong Kong be changed after Hong Kong becomes a Special Administrative Region of China in
  140. real estate and business services
  141. Recognition of the Degree awarded
  142. retailý import & export trade, restaurants & hotels
  143. security (i. e. no need to quit your current job)
  144. social and personal services. -333- 8. the number of years' working experience you have.
  145. social and personal services. -339- 8. the number of years' working experience you have. 4 years or below 5 to 9 years
  146. social and personal services. -345- 8. the number of years' working experience you have.
  147. social and personal services. -351- the number of years' working experience you have. 4 years or below 5 to 9 years 10to 15 years
  148. social and personal services. -357- the number of years' working experience you have.
  149. specify: ___ For the whole programme of a distance education in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate level of course fee?
  150. specify: -359- if you are considering studying a new programme, which one of the study modes would you prefer? Local full-time on campus, e. g. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Local part-time evening on campus,
  151. specify: 10. Which one of the following is the most useful type of programme for Hong Kong's employees to upgrade their qualifications in the near future? (0- Sub-degree programmes, such as certificate or diploma level
  152. specify: 15. If the current distance education programme were launched in China, which one of the following aspects should be revised to suit Chinese students? (Please tick one and specify how it should be revised.
  153. specify: 15. If the current distance education programme were launched in China, which one of the following aspects should be revised to suit Chinese students? (Please tick one and specify how it should be revised. ) M- Course material (Please specify:
  154. specify: 15. If the current distance MBA programme were launched in China, which one of the following aspects should be revised to suit Chinese students? (Please tick one and specify how it should be revised.
  155. specify: 3. For the whole programme of a distance education in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate level of course fee?
  156. specify: 3. For the whole programme of a distance MBA in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate level of course fee?
  157. specify: 5. Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance education programme and job promotion?
  158. specify: 5. If the current distance Master degree programme were launched in China, which one of the following aspects should be revised to suit Chinese students? (Please tick one and specify how it should be revised.
  159. specify: 5. whether your current job requires you to work in the People's Republic of China
  160. specify: 5. whether your currentjob requires you to work in the People's Republic of China
  161. specify: 7. Does a relationship exist between the completion of a distance degree programme and job promotion?
  162. specify: 7. the kind of industry that your employer's organisation engages in.
  163. specify: For the whole programme of a distance Master degree in Hong Kong, what do you think should be the appropriate level of course fee?
  164. specify: whether your currentjob requires you to work in the People's Republic of China (China).
  165. specify: Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance education programme do you think is most suitable for you?
  166. specify: years) -328- 5. Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance education programme do you think is most suitable for you? Chinese
  167. (1995). SPSS: Guide to Data Analysis,
  168. storage and communications
  169. storage and communications Finance, insurance, real estate and business services
  170. Sub-degree programmes, such as certificate or diploma level
  171. than 4 years) 6. Would you prefer to have content on China in the new programme?
  172. than 4 years) 7. Would you prefer to have content on China in the new programme?
  173. than 4 years) Would you prefer to have content on China in the new programme?
  174. (1986). The Cultural Revolution and Post-Mao Reforms: A Historical Perspective,
  175. (1996). The Effectiveness of University Management Development Programme, (Boston, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration,
  176. (1993). The End of Hong Kong: The Secret Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat,
  177. The flexibility of study (choice of course and place of study)
  178. (1997). The Future of Hong Kong: Toward
  179. The length of the study (for the whole programme)
  180. (1996). The Use of Electronic Mail in Undergraduate Teaching',
  181. To improve your management skills and knowledge
  182. UK's higher education system
  183. USA's higher education system
  184. W 0,1992, 'Pressure for Educational Excellence in China: Implications for Education in Hong Kong',
  185. ý 3 years 4 years Other (please specify: ___ _years) -340- Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance MBA programme do You think is most suitable for you?
  186. years 3 years 4 years Other (please specify: years) -334- 5. Which written language(s) for books/materials of a distance education programme do you think is most suitable for you? (0- Chinese
  187. Yes (Please answer to Question 9.
  188. Yes, the reason No, the reason I am not sure -358- 6. Does your employer rate the distance education programmes lower than the full-time programmes? (I)__ Yes (Please answer to Question 7.
  189. your current annual income (in one year), including housing allowance and bonus.

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