Location of Repository

The Society of Jesus in England, 1623-1688 : an institutional study

By Thomas M. McCoog

Abstract

From the Society of Jesus' first appearance in England in 1580,\ud various political treatises, literary works, and theological discourses\ud have attributed legendary plots, exploits, and malice to its members.\ud For nearly two hundred years, the Jesuits were consistently portrayed\ud as seditious regicides who would sacrifice all to regain England for\ud Rome. Although modern scholarship has revealed the true nature of the\ud myth of the evil Jesuits, few historians have attempted to explicate\ud the reality. There have been biographies of individual sixteenth\ud century Jesuits and studies of the Society's conflicts with the English\ud secular clergy and of their pretended plots against the government but\ud there has been no investigation of the English Jesuits as members of an\ud international religious order. The Society of Jesus had a "pathway to\ud God" in its Institute (that is, its Constitutions, decrees, and rules)\ud which became more complicated throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth\ud centuries. Could it be adapted to the special conditions of England?\ud Were the practices of the Jesuits there harmonious with those prescribed\ud in the Institute? Or was England so singular that dispensations and\ud concessions left the Society there scarcely recognizable as such to\ud other Jesuits? Centring on the period from 1623 to 1688, from the\ud initial enthusiasm at the erection of the province to the debacle of\ud James II's collapse and flight, this thesis will consider the English\ud Jesuits in the context of the Society's Institute.\ud Not bound by any monastic vow of stability, the early Jesuits were\ud dispersed throughout the world. The preservation and the confirmation\ud of union among such members was a constant concern of St Ignatius\ud Loyola and the early Society. Out of this concern evolved much of the\ud Society's Institute and its ordinary manner of government, which are\ud topics of the first chapter.\ud Although the mission was opened in 1580, England did not become a\ud fully constituted province until 1623. During the intervening forty-three\ud years, the mission survived on the institutional fringe of the\ud Society. It was the Society's first independent, permanent mission and,\ud as such, was an exception to the customary style of government. Condemned\ud as a novelty, the mission withstood the threats and objections of other\ud provinces. Once erected, the English province was remarkably resilient in\ud its adjustments to the vicissitudes of the English political scene.\ud As the number of Jesuits increased, "colleges" and "residences"\ud were established in England. The precise meaning of both terms has\ud long eluded recusant historians and can only be understood fully if seen\ud in the context of the Institute. Although most Jesuits lived with\ud recusant families, there was a consistent effort to have a specific\ud Jesuit house within each college and residence.\ud Restricted by the Society's teachings on poverty and threatened by\ud the penal laws, the province had to be very careful about its financial\ud arrangements. The Society's Institute placed serious restrictions on\ud the provincial institutions. Working within those limitations, the\ud province was able to protect most of its capital and much of its real\ud estate again t theft, confiscation, and apostasy through lay trustees\ud and a complex system of interlocking trusts

Topics: BX
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:4015

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1964). (1565-1606) and the (loondon,
  2. 0 "English Catholics without a Bishop,? '
  3. 10118 A rough first draught of the History of England's late most holy and most glorious Royal Confessor and Defender of the true
  4. (1975). 11 Early Stuarts (Great Wakering, doi
  5. (1971). 23-5)0 in "Ine Origins of the Zn-, -lish by' Conrad Russell (London,
  6. (1915). 40 "The Opposition of the Archpriest Blackwell9ft The Month 125
  7. (1969). 40 Catholic Recusancy in Wiltshire 1660-1791 doi
  8. (1983). 7 of two Centuries
  9. (1901). 7V 0 q rI - a lite', ' I -;
  10. (1915). 9 "The Appellant Controversy, "
  11. (1972). A . Eistory of the Societ;: of Jesus (St Louis,
  12. (1651). A 135 Orders and Examinations about the Popish Plot taken out of Council Papers 1678-1679-MS Rawlinson C 093 Catalogus co llegiorum et donzium undetriFinta Societatis Jesu in provincia Austriaea
  13. A Brief 'Historical Relation of State Affairs, doi
  14. A conference or Dialogue discoveringthe sect of Iesuites (London,
  15. (1889). A Historical. Sketch of the Conflicts Between Jesuits
  16. (1964). A Jesuit Account Book, "
  17. (1982). A Question of Jurirýdiction. Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon, and the Catholic Laity, 1625-319"
  18. (1911). Acts of the Privy Council 1613-1614 Burton, Edwin H. Dhe Douay College Diaries (London,
  19. (1972). America ext and 2 vols.
  20. An Abstract of Several Examinations taken upon Oath,
  21. An answer to the Provinciall Letters (Paris,
  22. (1964). An Elizabethan Problem: Some Aspects of the Careers of Two Exile Adventurers doi
  23. (1976). An Introduction to Jesuit Life: The Constitutions' and History through 435 Years (St Louis,
  24. and Doctrine An Account of the _ (n. p. LLondon], 1661) 'ding
  25. (1957). and Her Parliatments 1584-1(S01
  26. (1981). and the Formation of Im-oerial Polý C, 11 pel Hill,
  27. (1983). and the Popish Plot (Chapel Hill, doi
  28. (1931). and the Seminaries in Spain The Month ,
  29. (1899). Annales collegii S. Albani in o_ppido Valesoleti,
  30. (1958). Annals of the EnglislCollege at Seville, with Accounts of other Foundations at Valladolid, St Lucar, Lisbon, and St Omers"
  31. Archdiocese of Westminster Vols. Vi vil xIx, xxixg xxxii Archives of the En Farm Street 797 ms 2-11
  32. (1625). Benedictine Opposition to Bishop Richard Smith
  33. (1981). Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, doi
  34. Calendar of State Parers Domestic Charles 1 1628-Calendar of State Pauers Venice 1626-1628. Calendar of State Parers l'ilan.
  35. Cam-pion: A 3iopra-phZ 0,0 Song, Raphael H. ation of The Sacred Con7regation for the Pro-oag the Faith Colashinýtonj
  36. (1980). Campion and Parsons (LonTon
  37. (1932). Cardinal Allen and the Society, "
  38. (1899). Carmel in England: A History of the English Missic of the Discalced Carmelites, 161.5, to 1849
  39. (1979). Catholic Loyalism-in Elizabethan EnFland (London, doi
  40. (1970). Catholic Recusancy in the City of York, doi
  41. (1975). Charles I and the Popish Plot"(Yale, doi
  42. Collections illustrating the History of the Catholic Religion in the counties of Cornwall,
  43. Compendium privilegiorum et gratiarum Societatis Iequ
  44. D ýisce"laneous tehological tracts and 1351 ýl I D. Stonyhurst, Lancashire Stonyhurst College Archives (SC)
  45. (1946). Dodd's Church History of England .5
  46. (1950). egiance and the Popish Plot (Nymegen,
  47. (1981). Elizabethan Casuistry (London,
  48. English Benedictines and the Oath of Allegiance,.
  49. (1960). English Catholicism 1558-1642 (Harlow, 1983)-Edwards, Francis. "Most Incomparable Lady: English Catholics and the French Marriage of 1625,11
  50. English Catholicism under Charles II. The Legal Position, "
  51. English Catholics and the Papal Deposing Power 1570-1640,11
  52. Epistolae Praepositorum Generalium
  53. Epistolae Praepositorum Generalium (Antwerp, 1635) Regulae Socie-tatis Iesu (Antwerp, 1635)-Instructio pro-Superioribus ad augendum conservandumque spiritum in Societate (Antwern,
  54. Epitome Instituti Societatis Jesu (Brussels, 1690) Institutum Societatis Jesu. 3 vols- (Florences, by
  55. (1907). Father Parsons' Memoirs"
  56. Fondo Gesuitico 1606 Collegia Seviglia Vatican Library Barberini XXXIV (transcript in the possession of Mr AntOnY Allison.
  57. Formulae Congregationum (Rome, 1616) Canones Congregationum Generalium Societatis Iesu (Rome, 1616) Ordinationes Prae-positorum Litterae Apostolicae Decreta Congregationum (Rome, 1617) tis I (Antwerp,
  58. Francis The Letters and Memorials of William Cardinal
  59. (1983). Free Places at the English College of St Omers and Bruges and the Liege Acaderriy, "
  60. Free School' in London 1688,11
  61. (1960). Generalium Soci oribus eiusdem h 502 Secondary works
  62. (1973). Henry III and the Jesuit Politicians doi
  63. (1980). His Anpointment as Visitor until His Tý De-nartnre from Japan (1573-1582) Part 1: ne Problem (1573-15ýý'O) (St Louis,
  64. Hist Soc 134 i649. 47- Patentes acceptationum collegiorum,
  65. (1912). Historia de la Compa'n'ia de Jesuos" en la asistencia de EsDadTat 6 vols.
  66. Historiae Provinciae Anglicanae ýSocietatis Iesu (St Omer,
  67. (1977). I English Catholics and the Recusancy Laws 1558-162ý A Study in Religion and Politics"(Rutgers,
  68. (1966). I'Du sens de la Congregation general dans la Compagnie de Jeius d1apres les Constitutions, "
  69. (1970). Ignatius' Own Legislation on Prayer: Ignatian and Post-Ignation Conceptsq'I Woodstock Letters 97 (1968) 149-224o Fletcher, Anthony.. The Outbreak of the Enfýlish Civil War (London, 17F1) Foley, Henryo Records of the
  70. Industriae -r)ro Su tis Societa ad curandos animae morbos (Antwerp,
  71. (1932). Introductio in studium Instituti et annotationes in Formulam instituti (2russels, 1937)-Corcoran, T. The Clon-ýrowes -ý? --cord 1814 to
  72. (1976). Iron-Mining in Restoration Furness: The Case of Sir Thomas Prestong"
  73. (1963). it "The Society of Jesus in Staffordshire,
  74. (1980). iumph of Providence: The Assassination Plot The Tr (Cambridge,
  75. (1961). Jacobean Political Thought and the Controversy over the Oath of Allegiance CambridgE D Phil? 1dal1ker, Francis Xavier. The Implementation of the Elizabethan Statues against Recusants, 1531-16'03 10,
  76. jo 8, which Vr Cates p. d. [London, 1678/91). calls a consult (n, -Revised Wing C 5695c. CD The Life and Times of Anthony 11ood, edited Andrew Clark. 5 vo ford, 1891-1900) Generalium Antwerp,
  77. (1979). John Gother and the English Way of Spirituality
  78. Lancashire Clergy in 1639. A recently discovered list among the Towneley Papers, "
  79. (1957). Laszlo I'Le catalogue-moeele du pere Lainez (1545)1"
  80. (1608). Londont CRS 41. Historical Manuscripts Commission. Fifth Report Tenth Report, Appendix Four: Stonyhurst Manuscripts. Cowper
  81. (1937). Memorable Sites in London, "
  82. (1921). Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reip. -ns of Elizabeth and
  83. (1970). Nonumenta Historica Societatis Jesu 063-The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, translated, with an introduction and a commentary by
  84. Note to 'The Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell"' doi
  85. (1982). Obedience to the Pope and to the Superior of the Society"
  86. (1975). OThe Political Thought of the Elizabethan Catholics'(Cambridge,
  87. (1967). Paýists andPblitans under Elizabeth I (London,
  88. (1973). Popery and Politics in England 1660-168ý`, doi
  89. (1972). Priest of theIP12. Z2ae
  90. (1980). Princes: A Studv of the Economic and Social Posi ion of the Tudor Episco (Cambridge,
  91. (1967). Principally from Central Sources/(Oxford,
  92. Provinciales: or The Mysterie of
  93. (1979). Recusancy and Dissent in Derbyshire 1603-1730*(Oxford,
  94. (1941). Registers of the Catholic Cha the PortuRuese lhbas vols. (London,
  95. Registers of the English College at Valladolid: 1589-1862
  96. (1607). Regulae Societatis Iesu
  97. (1606). Regulae Societatis Iesu (Rome, 1582) Re-gulae Societatis ITsu
  98. Remarks on a Book entitled Memoirs of Gregorip Panzani (Liege,
  99. Residence of St George 1635-1695 College of St Aloysius: West Leigh Tithes 1656-1933-College of the Holy Apostles
  100. (1964). Richelieu and the French Marriage. The political context of Smith's appointment as bishop for England in 1624,11
  101. (1960). Royalist Conspiracy in England 1649-1660 doi
  102. Spain and the Jacobean Catholics.
  103. (1965). St Ignatius: Prayer and the Early Society of Jesus, "
  104. (1966). St Ignatius' Intuitions on Obedience and their Written Juridical Expression, "
  105. t the Appellants and the Jesuits,
  106. te PaDers Venice 1"10-ý--16-113-- Calendar of State tD 16-Q-1632. Calendar of State Paners Venice eCaracnan,
  107. (1932). The ; opular Fear of Catholics during the English Revolution, " Past "Fear of Popery" Civil War,
  108. (1977). the 31stand 32nd General Congregation of the Society of Jesus_(St Louis,
  109. (1972). The Angli-Gallicanism of Dom Thomas Preston, 1567-1647" in Schism, Heresy and Religious Protest, edited by Derek Baker (Cambridge,
  110. (1951). The AutobiographY Of an Elizabethan (London,
  111. (1971). The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, " doi
  112. (1975). The Catholic Ascendancy in London and the Home Counties, 1685-88, "
  113. (1978). The Catholic Ascendancy in the Eastern Counties, 1685-88,11
  114. (1978). The Catholic Ascendancy in the Midlands,, 1685-88,11
  115. (1975). The Catholic Ascendancy in the Worcester Region,
  116. (1966). The Catholic Recusants of, the North Riding of Yorkshire 155ý-1790 doi
  117. (1978). The Catholic Stibjects of Elizabeth I (London,
  118. (1962). The Catholics in Caroline England (Stanford, doi
  119. The Commission for Superstitious 1690s, " 15
  120. (1981). The Continuity of Catholicism in the English Reformation, " doi
  121. (1982). The Contribution of 1639: Court and Country Catholicism, "
  122. (1970). The Counter-Reformation and the People of Catholic Europe, "
  123. (1972). the Counter-Reformation History of the Society of esus Colonial -and 'Federal. 2 vols. Docw-iients (London, 1907-1917)-The Popish Plot (London,
  124. (1966). The Deliberations of Our First Fathers, "
  125. The Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell in March 1627/2811 doi
  126. (1959). The Early Stuarts 160 doi
  127. (1964). the Elizabethan Catholics: A Question of Geography, " doi
  128. (1981). The Elizabethan Jesuits (London,
  129. (1974). The Emergence of Modern Finance in Europe, 1500-17301t in The Fontana Economic History of Europe: The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, edited by Carlo Copiolla
  130. (1611). The EnElish College at
  131. (1980). The English Benedictines 1540-1688 doi
  132. (1976). The English Catholic Community 1570-18, ýO_ TUýndon,
  133. (1920). The English Catholics in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (Londont
  134. The Enrlish Catholic Refuýjees on the Continent lc; 58-1792 ýLondonj 1914). Haizh, Christopher. "From 1,. Ionopoly to IMinority: Catholicism in Early l,,
  135. The Erection of the Vice-Province into a Province, "
  136. The Eyres of Hassopp and Some of Their Connections from the Test Act to Zmancipation, "
  137. (1965). The Eyres of Hassopp and their Forfeited Estates, "
  138. (1470). The Eyres of Hassopp,
  139. The Fear of Catholics
  140. (1983). The Fourth Vow in its Ignatian Context: A Historical Study,
  141. (1974). The General Congregations of the Society of Jesus: A Brief Survey of their History,
  142. (1969). The Influence of Pr_o2hecv in the Later Middle Ages: A Study in Joachimism doi
  143. (1942). The Jacobean Oath of Allegýance and the English Lay Catholics, "
  144. (1903). The Jesuit 'Consult' of April 24th,
  145. (1965). The Jesuit Library in Hereford Cathedralg"
  146. (1981). The Jesuit Mission in Ireland: 11598-1651 (Catholic University of America, PhD,
  147. (1971). The Jesuits and the Independents: 1647, " AHSI 4o
  148. (1964). The Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice doi
  149. (1979). The Later Life and Writings of Joseph Creswell,
  150. (1959). The Letters of St Ignatius Ijoyola (Chicago,
  151. (1956). The Life of Robert Southwell: Poet and Martyr _ TUTn don,
  152. (1957). The Making of the Restoration Settlement: The Influence -of the Laudians 1649-1672 doi
  153. (1962). The Origin of Jesuit Colleges for Externs and the Controversies about their Poverty,
  154. (1982). The Pedagogical Import of the Spiritual Exercises in the Society in the 16th and 17th Centuries" in The Exercis es: Their Milieu and Foundation (Rome,
  155. The Personal Yonarch St Omers to_Stonyhurst: A Histor London 1819).
  156. (1902). The Politics of the English Catholics during the Reign of Elizabeth, "
  157. (1922). The Printing Press, of the English College at St -z Cmers, "
  158. (1981). The Publishing Policy of the English Jesuits at St Omer, 1608-1759" in Religion and Humanism, edited by Keith
  159. (1972). The Residence of St George: Jesuits in Warwickshire and Worcestershire in Penal Times, "
  160. The rnc,, lish Jesuits 1650-1829:
  161. (1956). The Royalists during the Puritan Revolution (The Hague, doi
  162. (1921). The Sacred Congregation de Progaganda Fide "istorical Review 6
  163. (1978). The Seventeenth Century Tradition: A Study in Recusant Thought (Leiden, doi
  164. (1960). The Spanish Elizabethans (Iondon, 1963)-Lukacs, Ladislao. . "De origine collegiorum externorum deque controversiis circa eorum papertatem, "
  165. (1978). The Stuart Constitution (Cambridge, doi
  166. (1979). The Venerable English College
  167. (1969). Tudor Royal Proclamations, doi
  168. (1891). Two Missionaries Under
  169. v- arious Papers Concerning the History of the Society of Jesus.
  170. (1958). Vaux of Harrowden: A Recusant Famia (Newport, 1953)-A Hundred Homeless Years:
  171. (1906). vols- (3erlin, 1887) l(rEonumenta Germaniae , Pa- eda-g, ýica 2,5,9-Parsons, Robert. "Of the Life and 1, Artyrdom of Father Edl-.
  172. (1982). Who was John Brereley2- The Identity of a Seventeenth Century Controversialist, "

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.