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Weed control with chloroacetamide herbicides in conventional and no-tillage systems

By Miguel Vicente Weiss Ferri and Ribas Antonio Vidal

Abstract

Os sistemas de manejo do solo podem alterar a bioatividade dos herbicidas cloroacetamidas e influir na sua persistência no solo, seletividade às culturas e eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas. Um experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, durante o ano agrícola de 2000/2001, para avaliar a eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas pelos herbicidas cloroacetamidas, em solo Argissolo Vermelho, manejado sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram avaliados os herbicidas acetochlor e alachlor, cada um na dose de 3.360 g ha-1, metolachlor a 2.400 g ha-1, s-metolachlor a 1.440 g ha-1, s-metolachlor + antídoto à 1.440 e 1.800 g ha-1, respectivamente, além da testemunha sem herbicida, nos sistemas convencionais e semeadura direta. As avaliações foram de eficácia de controle, população de plantas daninhas e matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas, realizadas aos 30 e 50 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT). Os herbicidas cloroacetamidas foram mais eficientes no controle das plantas daninhas no preparo convencional, comparado à semeadura direta, em ambas as épocas de avaliação. Os herbicidas acetochlor, alachlor a 3.600 g ha-1 e s-metolachlor + protetor a 2.400 g ha-1 foram mais eficientes no controle destas plantas, em relação aos demais herbicidas e formulações. A produção de matéria seca e a população das plantas daninhas foram menores no preparo convencional.Soil management systems can affect chloroacetamide herbicide bioactivity and its soil persistence, crop selectivity and weed control. An experiment was carried out at the University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the growing season 2000/2001, to evaluate the weed control efficacy of the chloroacetamide herbicides, in a Paleudult soil, under conventional tillage and notillage systems. The following treatments were tested: acetochlor and alachlor, each at the rate of 3.360 g ha-1, metolachlor at 2.400 g ha-1, s-metolachlor at 1.440 g ha-1, and s-metolachlor + protector at 1.440 and 1.800 g ha-1, respectively, besides a check plot without herbicide, applied under conventional and no-tillage systems. Assessments included weed population, weed dry matter and weed control at 30 and 50 days after herbicide application. The chloroacetamides herbicides were more effective in controlling weeds under conventional tillage, compared to no tillage, in both evaluation times. The herbicides acetochlor, alachlor at 3,600 g ha-1 and metolachlor + protector at 2,400 g ha-1 were more efficient in controlling these plants when compared to the other herbicides and formulations. Dry biomass production and weed populations were lower under conventional tillage

Topics: Erva daninha : Matologia, Persistence, Herbicida, Herbicides, Controle químico, Soil management, Metolachlor, Persistência de pesticida, Manejo do solo, Acetochlor, Sistema de cultivo, Alachlor, Plantio direto, Materia seca
Year: 2013
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.PC_UFRGS:oai:www.lume.ufrgs.br:10183/77684
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