Background: Many articles have shown that HIV infection can modify the clinical course of leprosy, but very scant epidemiological and clinical data about this co-infection are available in the peer-reviewed literature. Methods: We herein describe the geographical distribution and demographic characteristics of 92 HIV/ Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients assisted in a Brazilian Leprosy referral center. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish clinical factors associated with type 1 reaction. Results: Co-infected patient admissions have steadily increased over the last years at this referral center. Most patientswere men, with a mean age of 32.3 years and presenting with the paucibacillary form of leprosy. The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was the only factor associated with type 1 reaction. Most patients were living in the metropolitan area and the north sub area of Rio de Janeiro City. Conclusion: Co-infected patients receiving ART have a greater chance to develop type 1 reaction. Patients living with both HIV and leprosy are likely to live in regions characterized by a high density impoverished populatio
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