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Hypertension and occupational characteristics of taxi drivers in Rio de Janeiro

By Marcelo Carvalho Vieira

Abstract

Os motoristas de t??xi s??o freq??entemente submetidos a in??meras exposi????es ambientais adversas, como calor, vibra????es, ru??do intenso, gases t??xicos provenientes da exaust??o de combust??veis f??sseis, al??m de longas jornadas de trabalho e trabalho noturno. Contudo, n??o foram identificados estudos nacionais que tivessem abordado a quest??o da sa??de dos taxistas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a associa????o entre fatores ocupacionais e a ocorr??ncia de hipertens??o arterial em um grupo de motoristas de t??xi do munic??pio do Rio de Janeiro. Al??m disso, procurou descrever as caracter??sticas s??cio-demogr??ficas e ocupacionais e analisar a freq????ncia de fatores de risco para hipertens??o arterial nesta popula????o. Tratou-se de um estudo epidemiol??gico do tipo seccional e de car??ter explorat??rio realizado entre os meses de novembro de 2008 e abril de 2009. Foram entrevistados 496 taxistas que utilizavam os pontos de parada regulamentados pela Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro. Todas as informa????es analisadas neste estudo foram auto-referidas. Foi utilizado question??rio com perguntas sobre presen??a e controle da hipertens??o arterial, fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento, perfil s??cio-demogr??fico e caracter??sticas ocupacionais. Entre os entrevistados, 110 (22,2%) referiram diagn??stico anterior de hipertens??o arterial. Observou-se que o grupo estudado apresentou elevadas freq????ncias de excesso de peso e sedentarismo. A carga de trabalho se revelou alta. Quarenta e quatro por cento dos entrevistados afirmaram trabalhar 7 dias por semana e 92% referiram jornadas de trabalho maiores do que 8 horas por dia. Quanto ?? propriedade da permiss??o, 286 motoristas se declararam propriet??rios da licen??a (57,7%). O tempo acumulado de trabalho como taxista apresentou rela????o estatisticamente significativa com a hipertens??o arterial (p<0,05). A chance de referir hipertens??o arterial entre os que trabalhavam como motorista de t??xi por 11 a 20 anos foi o dobro daquela observada entre os que trabalhavam h?? menos de 10 anos, independentemente da idade. Neste grupo de trabalhadores foi encontrada uma elevada freq????ncia de fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertens??o arterial. Faz-se necess??ria a cria????o de estrat??gias para promover a ado????o de h??bitos de vida mais saud??veis e melhorar as condi????es detrabalho dos motoristas de t??xi. Al??m disso, ?? imprescind??vel a realiza????o de novas pesquisas cient??ficas com estes profissionais, a fim de aprofundar as quest??es relativas ao envolvimento das atividades ocupacionais no processo sa??de-doen??a.Taxi drivers are often subject to many adverse conditions, such as heat, vibration, intense noise, exhaust gases from fossil fuels, and long work hours and night work. However, it was not possible to identify Brazilian studies that have addressed taxi driver???s health issues. This study aimed to evaluate the association between occupational factors and the occurrence of hypertension in a group of taxi drivers in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In addition, it sought to describe socio-demographic and occupational characteristics and analyze the frequency of risk factors for arterial hypertension in this population. This was a exploratory cross-sectional study conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. Four hundred and ninety-six drivers, who used taxi stations regulated by the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, were interviewed. All the information analyzed in this paper was self-reported. A questionnaire focusing on the presence and control of hypertension, the risk factors for its development, as well as socio-demographic profile and occupational characteristics was used. Among the respondents, 110 (22.2%) reported previous diagnosis of hypertension. It was observed that the group studied showed high frequencies of overweight, diabetes mellitus, smoking and lack of physical activity during leisure time and were generally concerned with the quality of their diet. The workload proved to be high. Forty-four percent of respondents said they worked 7 days a week and 92% reported working hours exceeding 8 hours per day. As for permit ownership, 286 drivers claimed they had a work license (57,7%). Cumulative work time as taxi driver was statistically significantly related to arterial hypertension (p<0,05). The chance of reporting hypertension among those who worked as a taxi driver for 11 to 20 years was twice that observed among those who worked less than 10 years, regardless of age.In this group of workers was found a high frequency of risk factors for the development of arterial hypertension. It is necessary to create strategies to foster the adoption of healthy life habits and to improve working conditions for these professionals. Furthermore, it is essential to carry out new scientific research on these professionals to further issues relating to the involvement of occupational activities in health-disease process

Topics: Hipertens??o Arterial, Doen??as Profissionais, Fatores de Risco, Organiza????o do Trabalho, Motoristas de T??xi, Hipertens??o, Doen??as Profissionais, Exposi????o Ambiental, Riscos Ocupacionais, Processo Sa??de-Doen??a, Fatores de Risco, Exposi????o Ambiental, Arterial Hypertension, Occupational Diseases, Risk Factors, Organization of Labor, Taxi Drivers, Hipertens??o/epidemiologia, Doen??as Profissionais/epidemiologia, Exposi????o Ambiental, Riscos Ocupacionais, Processo Sa??de-Doen??a, -Fatores de Risco, Estudos Epidemiol??gicos
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.RI_FIOCRUZ:oai:localhost:icict/2534
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