Summary Objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical disease. Using baseline data from the HIV-infected cohort of Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, factors associated with an increased prevalence of HPV were assessed. Methods: Samples from 634 HIV-infected women were tested for the presence of HPV infection using hybrid capture II and polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. Results: The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 48%, of which 94% were infected with a high-risk HPV. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with infection with highrisk HPV type were: younger age (<30 years of age; PR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1???2.1), current or prior drug use (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0???1.6), self-reported history of HPV infection (PR 1.2, 95% CI 0.96???1.6), condom use in the last sexual intercourse (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1???1.7), and nadir CD4+ T-cell count <100 cells/mm3 (PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2???2.1). Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of high-risk HPV-infection among HIV-infected women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was high. Close monitoring of HPV-related effects is warranted in all HIVinfected women, in particular those of younger age and advanced immunosuppression
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