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Environmental aspects and impacts during the production phase of a residential work

By Viviana Salete Rigon

Abstract

O setor da constru????o civil contribui largamente com as interfer??ncias humanas na natureza, sendo a ind??stria considerada como um dos principais setores que consomem recursos naturais e interferem mudando a paisagem e dispondo de res??duos e efluentes na natureza. Como a????es mitigat??rias desses impactos realizadas, cita-se a resolu????o CONAMA 307/2002 que estabelece diretrizes para a gest??o de res??duos de constru????o, e o estabelecimento de algumas centrais de reciclagem de res??duos da constru????o e demoli????o (RCD). O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os principais aspectos e impactos ambientais, recursos consumidos e res??duos gerados nas atividades de produ????o. O m??todo utilizado foi o estudo de caso e teve como objeto de estudo res??duos gerados, em todas as atividades da fase de produ????o, de um condom??nio residencial executado por uma empresa construtora. Foram avaliados os quatroze processos produtivos existentes na obra, os quais geraram 174 aspectos, 280 impactos potenciais, sendo que, destes, 189 impactos considerados significativos. Verificou-se que os quatro processos principais geradores de impactos significativos foram a 1) alvenaria estrutural e convencional, 2) a laje de teto com forma convencional e concreto bombeado, 3) as vigas de baldrame e contrapiso e 4) a pintura interna e externa, respondendo por 44% dos impactos significativos da obra. Os resultados obtidos com a realiza????o do trabalho indicam que as quatorze atividades estudadas geraram algum tipo de aspecto e impacto ambiental, sendo muitos dos impactos avaliados como significativos. Al??m de res??duos s??lidos, principal "sa??da" em cada atividade, foi constatada a gera????o de poeira, efluentes e odores. Contudo, ainda sobre os res??duos s??lidos, embora a classifica????o da resolu????o CONAMA 307/2002, principal regulamentadora dos res??duos de constru????o, aponte uma grande parte dos res??duos como inerte (Classe A), o trabalho indica uma grande utiliza????o de produtos qu??micos, como aditivos, colas adesivas e tintas, que podem contaminar esses res??duos. Isso foi percebido em res??duos de madeira e revestimentos cer??micos. Outrossim, 21% dos impactos significativos observados no estudo enquadraram-se no uso de recursos naturais n??o renov??veis ou escassos, e outros 21 % na ocupa????o de aterros.The construction sector contributes largely to the human interference in nature, being the industry regarded as one of the main sectors that consume natural resources and interfere with the landscape changes and disposal of waste and effluents in nature. There are some actions for the reduction of these impacts, such as CONAMA Resolution 307/2002 establishing guidelines for the management of construction waste, and the establishment of some recycling plants for construction and demolition waste. The aim of this work is to analyze the main environmental aspects and impacts, consumed resources and generated waste during production activities. The method used was the case study and had as its object of study waste generated in all activities of the production phase of a residential condominium by a construction company. It was evaluated fourteen processes existing in the work site, which generated 174 aspects, 280 potential impacts, and of these, 189 were considered as significant impacts. It was found that the four major processes that generate significant impacts were masonry and conventional slab roof with a conventional and pumped concrete, beams and subfloor baldrame and internal and external painting, representing 44 % of the significant impacts at the residencial work. The results obtained with the implementation of the study indicate that the fourteen activities studied have generated some sort of appearance and environmental impacts, with many of the impacts evaluated as significant. In addition to solid waste, the main "output" in each activity was detected dust, effluents and odors. However, while the solid waste based on the Resolution CONAMA 307/2002, page regulatory construction waste, are mostly considered as inert (Class A), this work indicates a large use of chemicals such as additives, glues, paints and adhesives, which can contaminate the waste. This was observed on waste wood and ceramic tiles. Furthermore, 21% of the significant impacts were observed in the study on the use of non-renewable resources or limited, and another 21% in the occupation of landfields

Topics: Constru????o civil, Obra residencial, Impactos ambientais, Res??duos, Civil construction, Residencial work, Environmental impacts, Waste, ACCNPQ::Engenharias::Engenharia Civil
Publisher: Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos
Year: 2013
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.BDTD_UNISINOS:oai:www.repositorio.jesuita.org.br:UNISINOS/3385
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