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A influ??ncia do ambiente institucional nas compet??ncias de empresas multinacionais em pa??ses emergentes: o caso da Tap Manuten????o e Engenharia Brasil

By Clarice da Fontoura Paim

Abstract

A presente tese investiga a internacionaliza????o de empresas em pa??ses emergentes a partir da an??lise da rela????o de tr??s temas relevantes para o estudo de neg??cios internacionais: as teorias de internacionaliza????o de empresas, a abordagem baseada em recursos e a abordagem institucional. A import??ncia do ambiente institucional (MEYER; MUDAMBI; NARULA, 2011; DUNNING; LUNDAN, 2008; NORTH, 1993) e dos recursos (BARNEY, 2001; PENG, 2001) nos processos de internacionaliza????o tem sido objeto de estudos recentes. Observa-se, no entanto, que essas quest??es muitas vezes s??o abordadas na literatura de neg??cios internacionais de forma desconectada, dificultando o entendimento de fen??menos mais contempor??neos, como os que envolvem a internacionaliza????o para pa??ses emergentes (FLEURY; FLEURY, 2007). Os pa??ses emergentes passaram a ser locais priorit??rios nos planos de investimentos das empresas transnacionais na atualidade (UNCTAD, 2009) e suas peculiaridades, principalmente no ??mbito institucional, podem influenciar as estrat??gias de investimento e a configura????o dos recursos das empresas multinacionais (MEYER ET AL, 2008). Diante do exposto a presente tese buscou analisar como o ambiente institucional influencia a mobiliza????o das compet??ncias de uma empresa multinacional que realizou investimento direto externo em um pa??s emergente. Para alcan??ar o objetivo foi realizado um estudo de caso atrav??s de uma perspectiva qualitativa (RICHARDSON, 1999; DENZIN; LINCOLN, 2006; FLICK, 2009) na TAP Engenharia e Manuten????o Brasil, subsidi??ria do Grupo TAP, empresa europ??ia com sede em Lisboa, Portugal. As t??cnicas de coleta de dados inclu??ram entrevistas semiestruturadas e dados secund??rios. Os dados foram analisados por meio de an??lise de conte??do utilizando como apoio para a an??lise o software QSR NVivo 9. Os resultados obtidos permitiram identificar que as motiva????es econ??micas e a busca por vantagens de propriedade, localiza????o e internaliza????o que predominaram na decis??o da empresa pelo investimento direto externo, conforme as premissas do Paradigma Ecl??tico (DUNNING, 1988). Utilizando as dimens??es propostas por Kauffmann ET AL (2010) identificou-se que, embora n??o tenha sido um fator decisivo, a qualidade do ambiente institucional influenciou positivamente a atra????o do investimento direto externo (AMAL; TOMIO; RABOCH 2010; NORTH, 1990; MUDAMBI; NAVARRA, 2002). Atrav??s da an??lise do processo de reconfigura????o de recursos (FELDMAN, 2004) e da an??lise da trajet??ria da subsidi??ria como um fen??meno path dependent (GOLDSTONE, 1998; TORFING, 1999; DAVID, 2000; MAHONEY, 2000; HOFF, 2008), observou-se que no per??odo de 2006 a 2011 a TAP como empresa multinacional transferiu e buscou desenvolver novas compet??ncias na subsidi??ria (RUGMAN; VERBEKE, 2001). Entretanto, aspectos culturais e regulat??rios do ambiente institucional do contexto local influenciaram a utiliza????o e explora????o dos recursos da empresa e, por conseguinte, as suas capacidades e compet??ncias organizacionais. O estudo contribui para evidenciar a import??ncia do ambiente institucional dos pa??ses emergentes n??o apenas para a atra????o do investimento direto externo, mas tamb??m como um elemento que pode influenciar a ativa????o de recursos e compet??ncias da empresa e a obten????o de vantagem competitiva.The present dissertation investigates the internationalization of firm in emerging countries from the analysis of the relation of three relevant themes for the study of international business: the theory of the internationalization of firms, the approach is based on resources and institutional approach. The importance of the institutional environment (MEYER; MUDAMBI; NARULA, 2011; DUNNING; LUNDAN, 2008; NORTH, 1993) and of resources (BARNEY, 2001; PENG, 2001) in the internationalization process has been object of recent studies. It is noted, however, that this inquires are very often discussed in the international business literature in a disconnected way, inhibiting the understanding of more contemporary phenomena, as the ones which involves the internationalization to emerging countries (FLEURY; FLEURY, 2007). The emerging countries became priorities in the investment plans of transnational companies nowadays (UNCTAD, 2009) and its peculiarities, mainly in the institutional ambit can influence the investment strategies and the conformation of the multinational firms (MEYER ET AL, 2008). Given this, the present thesis sought to analyze how the institutional environment influences the mobilization of competencies of a multinational company which make foreign direct investments in an emerging country. To reach the goal a case study was performed through a qualitative perspective RICHARDSON, ET AL, 1999; DENZIN; LINCOLN, 2006; FLICK, 2009) at TAP Engineering and Maintenance Brazil, subsidiary of TAP Group, an European company with headquarter in Lisbon, Portugal. The data collection techniques??? included semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The data were analyzed through the analysis of contents using as support of the software QSR NVivo 9 review. The results obtained allowed to identify that the economic motivation and the seek for advantages of propriety, location and internalization predominated in the decision of the company by the foreign direct investments, according to the premises of Eclectic Paradigm (DUNNING, 1988). Using the dimensions proposed by Kauffman ET AL (2010) it was identified that, although it was not a decisive factor, the quality of the institutional environment positively influenced the foreign direct investment attraction (AMAL; TOMIO; RABOCH 2010; NORTH, 1990; MUDAMBI; NAVARRA, 2002). Through the analysis of the resources reconfiguration process (Feldman, 2004) and the trajectory of the subsidiary as a path dependent phenomenon (GOLDSTONE, 1998; TORFING, 1999; DAVID, 2000; MAHONEY, 2000; HOFF, 2008), it was noticed that from the period of 2006 to 2011, TAP, as a multinational company, transferred and sought to develop new competencies in the subsidiary (RUGMAN; VERBEKE, 2001). However, cultural and regulatory aspects of the institutional environment of the local context influenced the use and exploitation of the company resources and therefore their capacities and organizational competencies. The study helps to highlight the importance of the institutional environment of emerging countries not only for the attraction of foreign direct investment, but also as an element that can influence the activation of resources and expertise of the company and gaining competitive advantage

Topics: Ambiente institucional, Recursos, Internacionaliza????o, Institutional environment, Resources, Internationalization, ACCNPQ::Ci??ncias Sociais Aplicadas::Administra????o
Publisher: Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.BDTD_UNISINOS:oai:www.repositorio.jesuita.org.br:UNISINOS/3287
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