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Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit quality and yield.

By Gerson Kleinick VIGNOLO

Abstract

O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes formula????es alternativas a base de xisto na aduba????o de pr??-plantio quanto ?? produ????o e qualidade de frutos de morangueiro. O experimento foi realizado em uma propriedade particular localizada na Estrada da Gama, 9?? Distrito de Pelotas/RS, no per??odo de maio a dezembro de 2009. As cultivares utilizadas foram Camarosa e Camino Real, com espa??amento de 0,30 x 0,30 m, conduzidas em tr??s linhas, sob t??nel baixo e irriga????o por gotejamento. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de aduba????o NPK (Kg ha-1) recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que a partir da aduba????o A1 at?? A6 as doses de torta de mamona (TM), fosforita alvorada (FA) e cloreto de pot??ssio (KCl) foram fixadas em 2400 kg ha-1, 375 kg ha-1 e 100 kg ha-1, respectivamente, variando as quantidades das matrizes fertilizantes a base de xisto (MBR) da seguinte forma: A1: 500 kg ha-1 de MBR 7; A2: 1000 kg ha-1 de MBR 7; A3: 1500 kg ha-1 de MBR 7; A4: 500 kg ha-1 de MBR 33; A5: 1000 kg ha-1 de MBR 33; A6: 1500 kg ha-1 de MBR 33. A partir da aduba????o A7 at?? A10 foram realizadas redu????es da aduba????o recomendada pela an??lise de solo, sendo A7: 0 kg ha-1 de TM, FA e KCl (0 kg ha-1 de adubo); A8: 800 kg ha-1 de TM, 125 kg ha-1 de FA e 33 kg ha-1 de KCl (1/3 da dose recomendada); A9: 1600 kg ha-1 de TM, 250 kg ha-1 de FA e 67 kg ha-1 de KCl (2/3 da dose recomendada); A10: 2400 kg ha-1 de TM, 375 kg ha-1 de FA e 100 kg ha-1 de KCl (dose recomendada). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares de morangueiro dispostas nas parcelas e as aduba????es, nas subparcelas, em esquema fatorial com quatro repeti????es. As unidades experimentais foram constitu??das por 12 plantas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ?? an??lise de vari??ncia e a compara????o de m??dias efetuada pelo Teste de Tukey ao n??vel de 5% de probabilidade. O fator quantitativo relativo ??s doses de aduba????o foi analisado estatisticamente, por meio de regress??o. As avalia????es realizadas foram produ????o de frutos por planta, din??mica de colheita, qualidade f??sico-qu??mica dos frutos, per??odo da flora????o a matura????o de frutos, massa seca da parte a??rea, ??ndice de clorofila, an??lise qu??mica do solo e foliar. A cultivar Camarosa apresentou maior n??mero e massa de frutos por planta, maior massa seca da parte a??rea, s??lidos sol??veis totais (SST) e acidez titul??vel total (ATT), por??m menor rela????o SST/ATT que Camino Real‟. A cultivar Camino Real apresentou maior massa m??dia por fruto, al??m de frutos com di??metro e comprimento m??dio superiores e maior ??ndice de clorofila. Com rela????o as formula????es de aduba????o de pr??-plantio, A6 proporcionou maior n??mero de frutos que A7. As aduba????es A2, A5 e A6 propiciaram maior massa de frutos que a testemunha (A7). As doses de aduba????o de pr??-plantio que propiciaram maior n??mero e massa de frutos por planta foram 1937 kg ha-1 e 1713 kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente. A aplica????o das tr??s doses de MBR 7 proporcionou maior SST nos frutos de morangueiro do que A8 e A9.The effect of different fertilization formulations in pre-planting on yield and quality were evaluated for Camarosa and Camino Real strawberry cultivars (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). This research was conducted at private farm located at Gama Road, 9th District of Pelotas / RS, during May to December 2009. The Camarosa and Camino Real strawberry cultivars were planted in annual system, using plant spacing of 0.30 x 0.30 m under low tunnels and drip irrigation. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1) recommended for strawberry crop. A factorial experiment arranged in a split-plot design was used, with two strawberry cultivars as main plot treatments, and ten levels of pre-planting fertilization as subplot treatments, with four replications. The experimental design was randomized blocks each replication consisted of 12 plants. The first six treatment were applied a fixed rate of castor bean (TM), phosphorite alvorada (FA) and potassium chloride (KCl) at 2400 kg ha-1, 375 kg ha-1 and 100 kg ha-1, respectively combined to: A1: 500 kg ha-1 MBR 7, A2: 1000 kg ha-1 MBR 7, A3: 1500 kg ha-1 MBR7, A4: 500 kg ha-1 MBR 33, A5: 1000 kg ha-1 MBR 33, A6: 1500 kg ha-1 MBR 33. The next four treatments were applied just TM, FA and KCl at three rates: A7: 0 kg ha-1 TM, 0 kg ha-1 FA and 0 kg ha-1 of KCl, A8: 800 kg ha-1 TM, 125 kg ha-1 FA and 33 kg ha-1 of KCl (1/3 of the recommended dose), A9: 1600 kg ha-1 TM, 250 kg ha-1 FA and 67 kg ha-1 KCl (2/3 of the recommended dose), A10: 2400 kg ha-1 TM, 375 kg ha-1 FA and 100 kg ha-1 of KCl (recommended). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and mean comparison was determined by Tukey test at 5% probability and regression analysis was also used to determine treatments effects. Yield, harvest dynamics, physical and chemical fruit‟s properties, the flowering period of fruit maturation, dry shoot weight, chlorophyll index, soil and foliar chemical analysis were done. Camarosa cultivar showed a greater number of fruits and fruit weight per plant, greater dry shoot weight, TSS and TA, but lower TSS / TTA than 'Camino Real'. Camino Real cultivar had the largest average fruit weight besides fruit diameter and length, and higher chlorophyll index. Regarding the formulation of pre-planting fertilization, greater number of fruits occurred in A6 compared to A7 treatment. A2, A5 and A6 fertilization treatment resulted in a greater fruit weight than the control (A7). The fertilization rates of pre-planting which resulted in a greater number and fruit weight per plant were 1937 kg ha-1 and 1713 kg ha-1, respectively. The application of the three MBR 7 doses provided higher TSS when compared to A8 and A9 treatment

Topics: fragaria x ananassa, xisto agr??cola, nutri????o, aduba????o alternativa, fragaria x ananassa, agricultural xisto, nutrition, alternative fertilization, CNPQ::CIENCIAS AGRARIAS::AGRONOMIA
Publisher: Universidade Federal de Pelotas
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:agregador.ibict.br.RI_UFPEL:oai:repositorio.ufpel.edu.br:123456789/1135
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