This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges and associated costs. In particular, the progress achieved by IPCC and UNFCCC bodies, as well as EU policies and national scale policies and measures are reviewed. Section 1.2, on adaptation to climate change, addresses the different concepts developed at the international scale, reviews progress on the EU and Austrian national adaptation strategy, and characterizes the different types of adaptation relevant over short, medium and long term timescales. The costs of inaction are also addressed. Again, progress achieved by IPCC and UNFCCC bodies, as well as EU policies (green and white papers, etc.) and national scale policies and measures (national adaptation strategy) will be reviewed. This includes the progress made on adaptation planning, implementation, and integration in vulnerable sectors. Section 1.3 highlights the synergies and trade-offs that may emerge among adaptation and mitigation and hence explains the importance of a holistic approach. This also includes a discussion of mainstreaming of mitigation and adaptation into other policy areas. Section 1.4 identifies the barriers for mitigation and adaptation, including obstacles at the individual, social, political and economic levels. Moreover, barriers of insufficient knowledge and uncertainties are addressed. Finally, approaches for overcoming these barriers are summarized and needs for future research are highlighted
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