We have used high-throughput Illumina sequencing to identify novel recombinants between\ud deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1), which accumulate to\ud higher levels than DWV in both honeybees and Varroa destructor mites. The recombinants,\ud VDV-1VVD and VDV-1DVD, exhibit crossovers between the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR),\ud and/or the regions encoding the structural (capsid) and non-structural viral proteins. This\ud implies the genomes are modular and that each region may evolve independently, as\ud demonstrated in human enteroviruses. Individual honeybee pupae were infected with a\ud mixture of observed recombinants and DWV. The strong correlation between VDV-1DVD\ud levels in honeybee pupae and the associated mites was observed, suggesting that this\ud recombinant, with a DWV-derived 5’-UTR and non-structural protein region flanking VDV-\ud 1-derived capsid encoding region, is better adapted to transmission between V. destructor and\ud honeybees than the parental DWV or a recombinant bearing the VDV-1-derived 5’-UTR\ud (VDV-1VVD)
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