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Anti-inflammatory activities of inotilone from Phellinus linteus through the inhibition of MMP-9, NF-κB, and MAPK activation in vitro and in vivo.

By Guan-Jhong Huang, Shyh-Shyun Huang and Jeng-Shyan Deng

Abstract

Inotilone was isolated from Phellinus linteus. The anti-inflammatory effects of inotilone were studied by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and λ-carrageenan (Carr)-induced hind mouse paw edema model. Inotilone was tested for its ability to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Inotilone was tested in the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), p38], and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein expressions in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with inotilone together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. Western blotting revealed that inotilone blocked the protein expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and MMP-9 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, significantly. Inotilone also inhibited LPS-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. In in vivo tests, inotilone decreased the paw edema at the 4(th) and the 5(th) h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also demonstrated that inotilone significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at the 5(th) h after Carr injection. Inotilone decreased the NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels on serum at the 5(th) h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that inotilone decreased Carr-induced iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-κB, and MMP-9 expressions at the 5(th) h in the edema paw. An intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection treatment with inotilone diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation, as did indomethacin (Indo). The anti-inflammatory activities of inotilone might be related to decrease the levels of MDA, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and MMP-9 and increase the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the paw edema through the suppression of TNF-α and NO. This study presents the potential utilization of inotilone, as a lead for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs

Topics: Medicine, R, Science, Q
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
DOI identifier: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035922
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:e44837b6b72d4a6daca20e95cb383afa
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