The seasonal periodicity of Lycopodium carolinianum L. var. tuberosum (Welw. et A. Braun ex Kuhn) Nessel in a dambo grassland in the Central Province of Zambia is described. Cauline tubers were formed on the apices of the creeping stems at the end of each growing season. Because of the downward curving of their initials the tubers became buried c. l cm underground. They were often the only parts of the plant which survived the grass fires occurring each year in the dry season. Hence, L. carolinianum var. tuberosum is a facultative geophyte in which the original, most probably xerophytic, adaptations became an effective means of protection against fire
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