Prevalence of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2 and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance was determined in bacteria isolated from UK manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples, over a two year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline (OTC) was used for manuring. Sul gene positive isolates were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in pig slurry and post application soil than in pre-application soil. Of 5isolates, 23 % carried sul1, 18 % sul2 and 9 % sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5 % and 11.7 % of sul positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8 % of sul1 positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide resistant pathogens were identified in slurry amended soil and soil leachate, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp. and Acinetobacter baumanni, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotype sul1, sul2 and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriacae, and in the soil environment
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.