Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Antibiotic resistance in the environment, with particular reference to MRSA

By William H. Gaze, Colette O'Neill, E. M. H. Wellington and P. M. Hawkey


The introduction of β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) in the 1940s and 1950s probably represents the most dramatic event in the battle against infection in human medicine. Even before widespread global use of penicillin, resistance was already recorded. E. coli producing a penicillinase was reported in Nature in 1940 (Abraham, 1940) and soon after a similar penicillinase was discovered in Staphylococcus aureus (Kirby, 1944). The appearance of these genes, so quickly after the discovery and before the widespread introduction of penicillin, clearly shows that the resistance genes pre-dated clinical use of the antibiotic itself

Topics: QR
Publisher: Academic Press
Year: 2008
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2003). A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for Staphylococcus aureus in organic and conventional dairy herds. Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, doi
  2. (2002). A novel methicillin-resistance cassette in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates of diverse genetic backgrounds. doi
  3. (1998). A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings.
  4. (2006). A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients' acquisition of MRSA. doi
  5. (2004). Airborne antibiotic resistant and nonresistant bacteria and fungi recovered from two swine herd confined animal feeding operations. doi
  6. (2005). Airborne Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation. Environmental health perspectives 113,
  7. (1940). An Enzyme from Bacteria Able to Destroy Penicillin. doi
  8. (2006). Analysing diversity among beta-lactamase encoding genes in aquatic environments. doi
  9. (2002). Analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa oprD gene from clinical and environmental isolates. doi
  10. (2007). Antibiotic efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria: the inhibitor response strategy. doi
  11. (2002). Antibiotic Prescription Rates Vary Markedly Between 13 European Countries. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases doi
  12. (1990). Antibiotic resistance among coliform bacteria isolated from carcasses of commercially slaughtered chickens. doi
  13. (2006). Antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. recovered from the indoor air of a large-scale swine-feeding operation. doi
  14. (2006). Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis.
  15. (2003). Antibiotic resistance—the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings. The Lancet Infectious Diseases doi
  16. (1999). Antibiotic usage in animals: impact on bacterial resistance and public health. doi
  17. (2003). Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine and ovine mammary glands. doi
  18. (2004). Antimicrobial resistance in commensal flora of pig farmers. Emerging infectious diseases doi
  19. (2000). Antimicrobial resistance in pig faecal samples from the Netherlands (five abattoirs) and Sweden. doi
  20. (2005). Antimicrobial susceptibility and coagulase gene typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis cases in Turkey. doi
  21. (2005). Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy farms using organic versus conventional production methods. doi
  22. (2000). Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Argentina. doi
  23. (2000). Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States. doi
  24. (2005). Association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance with extended-spectrum betalactamase VEB-1. doi
  25. (2001). Asymptomatic carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum betalactamase by patients in a neurological early rehabilitation unit: management of an outbreak. doi
  26. (2003). Asymptomatic nasal carriage of mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pet dog associated with MRSA infection in household contacts. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases doi
  27. (2003). Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain. Microb Drug Resist 9, doi
  28. (2002). Betalactamases in ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from foods, humans, and healthy animals. doi
  29. (1987). Cephalosporin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci. doi
  30. (2002). Cephalosporins in veterinary medicine -ceftiofur use in food animals. Current topics in medicinal chemistry doi
  31. (1976). Changes in intestinal flora of farm personnel after introduction of a tetracycline-supplemented feed on a farm. doi
  32. (2000). Characterisation of two new gene cassettes, aadA5 and dfrA17. doi
  33. (1990). Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus 40 from subclinical bovine mastitis in Brazil. The British veterinary journal 146, doi
  34. (2001). Characterization of a chromosomally encoded extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase from Kluyvera cryocrescens. doi
  35. (2003). Characterization of class 1 integron resistance gene cassettes and the identification of a novel IS-like element in Acinetobacter baumannii. doi
  36. (2000). Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococcus faecium (GRE) from broilers and pigs in Denmark: genetic evidence that persistence of GRE in pig herds is associated with coselection by resistance to macrolides. doi
  37. (2004). Characterization of MultipleAntimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Retail Meats. doi
  38. (2004). Chromosome-encoded CTX-M-3 from Kluyvera ascorbata: a possible origin of plasmid-borne CTX-M-1-derived cefotaximases. doi
  39. (2004). Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis. doi
  40. (1990). Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital. doi
  41. (2002). Clinical prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. intermedius in dogs. doi
  42. (2005). Clonal comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from healthy pig farmers, human controls, and pigs. Emerging infectious diseases doi
  43. (1996). Colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: associated factors and eradication. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists doi
  44. (1995). Common virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity in plants and animals. doi
  45. (1998). Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with no identified predisposing risk. doi
  46. (2007). Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology doi
  47. (2005). Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its emerging virulence. doi
  48. (2005). Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and humans who work with horses. doi
  49. (1997). Comparison of success of antibiotic therapy during lactation and results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bovine mastitis. doi
  50. (1983). Conjugational transfer of gentamicin resistance plasmids intra- and interspecifically in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. doi
  51. (2006). Copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium, mediated by the tcrB gene, is selected by supplementation of pig feed with copper sulfate. doi
  52. (2001). CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes ceftazidime through a single amino acid substitution in the omega loop. doi
  53. (2005). CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in the UK. doi
  54. (2003). Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens. doi
  55. (2002). Determination of persistent tetracycline residues in soil fertilized with liquid manure by highperformance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. doi
  56. (2004). Development of a rapid method for direct detection of tet(M) genes in soil from Danish farmland. doi
  57. (2003). Development of Methicillin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri by Transcriptional Activation of the mecA Homologue Native to the Species. doi
  58. (2006). Dissemination in Portugal of CTX-M-15-, OXA-1-, and TEM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains containing the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, which encodes an aminoglycoside- and fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme. doi
  59. (1996). Does the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry select antibiotic-resistant bacteria that infect man and compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy? doi
  60. (1994). Ecology of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various sites on dairy farms. doi
  61. (2004). Effect of length of time before incorporation on survival of pathogenic bacteria present in livestock wastes applied to agricultural soil. doi
  62. (1983). Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens. doi
  63. (2003). Efficacy of intramammary tilmicosin and risk factors for cure of Staphylococcus aureus infection in the dry period. doi
  64. (2005). Emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in Enterobacteriaceae. doi
  65. (2003). Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil. doi
  66. (2004). Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-2 beta-lactamase in cattle, doi
  67. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Campylobacter spp isolated from dairy cattle and farms managed organically and conventionally in the midwestern and northeastern United States. doi
  68. (2000). Exogenous isolation of antibiotic resistance plasmids from piggery 43 manure slurries reveals a high prevalence and diversity of IncQ-like plasmids. doi
  69. (1994). Exogenous Isolation of Mobilizing Plasmids from Polluted Soils and Sludges.
  70. (1983). Experimental and mathematical models of Escherichia coli plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo.
  71. (2006). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamaseproducing Enterobacteriaceae in different environments (humans, food, animal farms and sewage).
  72. (1944). Extraction of a highly potent penicillin inactivator from penicillin resistant staphylococci. doi
  73. (2005). Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes. doi
  74. (2005). Fluoroquinolone resistance and gyrA and parC mutations of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken. doi
  75. (1998). Fluoroquinolone resistance: overuse of fluoroquinolones in human and veterinary medicine can breed resistance.
  76. (1991). Fomites and reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus causing intramammary infections as determined by phage typing: the effect of milking time hygiene practices.
  77. (2001). Gene cassette PCR: sequence-independent recovery of entire genes from environmental DNA. doi
  78. (1995). Gene cassettes: a new class of mobile element. doi
  79. (2003). Genetic analysis of a high-level vancomycin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus.
  80. (1999). Genetic Exchange between Bacteria in the Environment. doi
  81. (2001). Genetic linkage between resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and beta-lactam antibiotics in food-related Staphylococcus spp. Microbial drug resistance doi
  82. (1995). Genetics and molecular biology of beta-lactam-resistant pneumococci. doi
  83. (2004). Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of Class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter. doi
  84. (2004). Growing group of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: the CTX-M enzymes. doi
  85. (1988). High frequency of antimicrobial resistance in human fecal flora. doi
  86. (2007). High prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. doi
  87. (1994). Human carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus linked with pet dog. doi
  88. (2005). Identification in cows presenting subclinical mastitis. Animals and environment,
  89. (1999). Incidence and characterization of integrons, genetic elements mediating multiple-drug resistance, in avian Escherichia coli.
  90. (2005). Incidence of class 1 integrons in a quaternary ammonium compound-polluted environment. doi
  91. (2003). Insights on antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from its whole genome: genomic island SCC. Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy 6, doi
  92. (2005). Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. doi
  93. (2004). Integron diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated mine tailings and inferences about integron evolution. doi
  94. (2003). Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development. doi
  95. (2007). Isolation of quinolone-resistance CTX-Mproducing Escherichia coli from raw chicken meat sold in retail outlets in the West Midlands, U.K. doi
  96. (2003). Jumping the Barrier to ß-Lactam Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. doi
  97. (2004). Local Variants of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in Sporadic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Evidence of Horizontal Gene Transfer? Antimicrobial Agents and doi
  98. (2003). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in a dog in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 128,
  99. (2004). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the critically ill. doi
  100. (2005). Methicillin-resistant staphylococci in companion animals. Emerging infectious diseases doi
  101. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel, doi
  102. (2006). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease. doi
  103. (1999). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in 11 dogs. The Veterinary record 144, doi
  104. (2004). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from companion animals. The Veterinary record 154,
  105. (1999). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: Potential Human-toAnimal Transmission.
  106. (2006). Methicillinresistant staphylococcal colonization in clinically normal dogs and horses in the community. doi
  107. (2005). Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farming. Emerging infectious diseases doi
  108. (1999). Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104.
  109. (2006). Molecular epidemiology of clinical and carrier strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital settings of north India. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials 5, doi
  110. (1995). Molecular population genetic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from cows.
  111. (2003). Multidrug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is strongly associated with the presence of integrons and is independent of species or isolate origin. doi
  112. (2004). Nontherapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in animal agriculture: implications for pediatrics. doi
  113. (2001). Occurrence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater underlying two swine production facilities. doi
  114. (2005). Origin of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrA. doi
  115. (2001). Peptide pheromone-induced transfer of plasmid pCF10 in Enterococcus faecalis: probing the genetic and molecular basis for specificity of the pheromone response. doi
  116. (2002). Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban. doi
  117. (2000). Plant growth-promoting bacteria that decrease heavy metal toxicity in plants. doi
  118. (1998). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from the skin surface of clinically normal cats. doi
  119. (1994). Prospective study of infection, colonization and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an outbreak affecting 990 patients. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the doi
  120. (1996). Proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems.
  121. (1994). Quinolone resistance in veterinary isolates of Salmonella. doi
  122. (2001). Recovery of new integron classes from environmental DNA. doi
  123. (2004). Resistance in the environment. doi
  124. (2004). Resistance integrons and super-integrons. doi
  125. (2006). Sau1: a novel lineage-specific type I restriction-modification system that blocks horizontal gene transfer into Staphylococcus aureus and between S. aureus isolates of different lineages. doi
  126. (2006). SCCmec in staphylococci: genes on the move. doi
  127. (1998). Self-transmissible mercury resistance plasmids with gene-mobilizing capacity in soil bacterial populations: influence of wheat roots and mercury addition.
  128. (2005). Sequence of the 68,869 bp IncP-1alpha plasmid pTB11 from a waste-water treatment plant reveals a highly conserved backbone, a Tn402-like integron and other transposable elements. doi
  129. (2004). Shaping bacterial genomes with integrative and conjugative elements. doi
  130. (1999). Short communication Antimicrobial resistance of feline staphylococci in south-eastern England. doi
  131. (2002). Short-term effect of the application of selective decontamination of the digestive tract on different body site reservoir ICU patients colonized by multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii doi
  132. (1991). Site-specific insertion of genes into integrons: role of the 59-base element and determination of the recombination cross-over point. doi
  133. (1990). Skin carriage of antibioticresistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in untreated subjects. doi
  134. (1984). Species distribution of coagulase-positive staphylococci in animals.
  135. (2003). Staphylococcal resistance revisited: communityacquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus- an emerging problem for the management of skin and soft tissue infections. Current opinion in infectious diseases doi
  136. (2002). Staphylococcus and biofilms. doi
  137. (2004). Staphylococcus aureus: superbug, super genome? doi
  138. (1988). Studies on clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to methicillin. Evidence of cross-resistance between methicillin and cephalothin. doi
  139. (1997). Surveillance of colonization and infection with Staphylococcus aureus susceptible or resistant to methicillin in a community skilled-nursing facility. doi
  140. (1993). Survival ability of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
  141. (2000). Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. doi
  142. (1996). Survival of potentially pathogenic human-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat. doi
  143. (1990). Systematics and the natural history of staphylococci 1. Society for Applied Bacteriology symposium series 19, doi
  144. (2001). Taxonomic diversity of bacteria associated with the roots of modern, recent and ancient wheat cultivars. doi
  145. (2001). The emergence and evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Trends in microbiology 9, doi
  146. (2003). The gene cassette metagenome is a basic resource for bacterial genome evolution. doi
  147. (2004). The impact of and resistance to fluoroquinolones in the environment In "Biology",
  148. (1998). The origins and molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. doi
  149. (2005). The rhizosphere as a reservoir for opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria. doi
  150. (2002). The sorption and transport of a sulphonamide antibiotic in soil systems. doi
  151. (2006). The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. doi
  152. (1996). Ubiquitous presence of a mecA homologue in natural isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri. Microbial drug resistance doi
  153. (2000). Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland. Preventive veterinary medicine 44, doi
  154. (2003). Use of oxytetracycline and tylosin in intensive calf farming: evaluation of transfer to manure and soil. doi
  155. (2002). Vancomycinresistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban. doi
  156. Vibrionaceae as a possible source of Qnr-like quinolone resistance determinants. doi
  157. (2001). What determines nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus? Trends in microbiology 9, doi
  158. (2001). Whole genome sequencing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. doi
  159. (1996). Why do antibiotic residues in milk happen.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.