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New miners in the Ruhr : rebuilding the workforce in the Ruhr mines, 1945-1958

By Mark Roseman


In 1945, the Ruhr pits faced enormous gaps in the workforce as a result of\ud wartime losses and pre-war difficulties in recruiting young labour. Regenerating\ud the workforce was the key to reviving Ruhr coal production and thus to German\ud and Western European economic recovery. Between 1945 and the onset of the\ud coal crisis in 1958, the Ruhr mines were to hire over a million men. Using\ud archival materials, private papers, contemporary printed sources and\ud interviews, the thesis analyses the measures undertaken to win new labour for\ud the Ruhr and the attempts to turn the newcomers into productive and settled\ud miners.\ud After an introductory section, the study looks at the degree to which workforce\ud regeneration was achieved in the pre-currency reform era. The underlying\ud theme is that the pre-1948 economy proved in many ways to be an uncontrolled\ud economy. Despite the enormous priority given to the task, the British initially\ud failed to rebuild the workforce. With US help, they achieved a breakthrough in\ud 1946-47, but the enterprise remained extremely costly and inefficient. These\ud problems resulted from weaknesses inherent in any controlled economy but\ud also from tensions and contradictions in British and later Bipartite rule.\ud The second half of the thesis considers the policies of the 1948-58 period and\ud argues that they were just as unsuccessful in regenerating the mining workforce.\ud Neither a stable nor a compliant workforce was created and in desperation the\ud industry began to turn to foreign labour. One reason for failure was the Federal\ud Government's slowness in responding to the mines' need for housing\ud investment. Another reason was that the established management style in the\ud Ruhr mines alienated many newcomers. The employers' attitudes to\ud management, integration and the labour market were stuck in a pre-war mould.\ud This study contributes to our understanding of a number of different features of\ud the reconstruction, notably the origins and limitations of the 'economic\ud miracle', the impact of and response to the enormous population mobility after\ud the war and the hopes and fears with which Germany's bourgeoisie entered the\ud post-war era. Ultimately, however, the theme running through the study is the\ud enormous and unique challenge that faced any organisation trying to create a\ud stable and productive workforce in the mines

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  1. (1956). (Vorschau). ?o date; UVR to Schulz,
  2. (1956). [ff.], [no place). 1957fI Industrieverband Bergbau
  3. 01, 251. various responses to a Circular from the Kapltularvikar. See Pfarrer Clemens Kitten to Dechant (Buer). 12.3.1947: Pfarrer Terborke to Dechant Nlehues.
  4. (1960). 1 A good general account is given
  5. 1 BAK-ZwSt.H 8102.33092. MA Meeting. 20.9.1956. The point is co~ftrmed in. Institut fOr angewandte Sozialw1ssenschaft. 'Untersuchung Ober die Fluktuation,
  6. 1 BAK-ZwSt.H BI02, 4391.164. Sltzung des Deutschen Bundestags, 26.9.1951: B134, 1372, Extract from the 'Kurzprotokoll Ober die 175. Kablnettsltzung der Bundesregterung am 26.9.1951'.
  7. (1949). 1 Figures up to
  8. 1 Ges.Verb File 'Wohnungswesen 4 Bergarbeiterwohnungsbauprogramm 41 Programme 1951-1953',
  9. (1948). 1 HStaD NW10.92. WAM. 'Bestlmmungen Ober die FOrderung des Baus von BergarbelterwobnstAtten',
  10. 1 lrifonnatlDns-RundbTie!zur sozialen Lage derJugend.
  11. 1 On disputes In the housing question, see HStaO
  12. 1 Particularly in 1949 and again in 1951. See below and also HStaD
  13. 1 Quote is from 1GB (ed.), Jahrbuch 1953, p.740. For examples of earlier stance, see the then !VB's hostlllty to the Idea of a house without a cellar (HStaD
  14. 10, 135, Mine Friedrich d Groj3e. Memo for Herrn Bergrat Helntzmann, 4.4.1955. 4 As is graphically manifest in Hans Dieter Baroth·s autobiographical account of his apprentlce years. See Baroth. Aber es waren schOne Zetten.
  15. 10, 594, Minutes of meeting ofBochum district ofDKBL.
  16. 10,594. Report on meeting of DKBL Bochum District. 18.6.1949; HStaD Kalkum BA Duisburg 181, correspondence between BetriebsfOhrervereinigungen Hambom-Oberhausen and 'lfnker Nlederrhein' and OBAD;
  17. 10: Composition of underground workforce according to status when hired 3 (Mine Shamrock 1/2) °tb of workforce
  18. (1982). 100 Jahre Bergarbeiterdichtung.
  19. (1949). 11/122-3/3. BICO paper. 'Miners' Housing Programme'.
  20. 16300/1289/45. Memo signed by Oberbergrat Hentrtch, 19.11.1945:
  21. 16301/2448/49, OKBL to OBAD, 5.11.1949, annex: 'Stellungnahme zu dem von der Verwaltung fOrWlrtschaft erbetenen Bert ch t..
  22. 16301/969/47, ABB, Circular to colliery managements and labour exchanges.
  23. 16303/2572/47. MInutes o(meetlng on 5.9.1947. 3 HStaD NW41. 746. Antrag der Abgeordneten Schabrod. Selndler usw.
  24. 16307/1918/49, OBAD to BA ReckUnghausen 1. 29.4.1949: 16307/1720/49, Minutes of meeting in dining room of Mine Friedrich-Heinrich.
  25. 16307/374/49, OBAD, Memo concerning a meeting of the Oberbergamt on 25.10.1948: HStaD Kalkum Bergamt Duisburg 181, OBAD to BetriebsfahrerVereinlgung Hamborn-Oberhausen.
  26. (1930). 17/8186/30. Hard Coal Production, Plan A 2 WWA S22 (OMGUS) BICO ERP SEC 11/95-2/3-4. DKBL paper 'Plan A', E en 20.2.1948. The reluctant elite 266 Table 11; Avera~e a~e of male workers in Ruhr mini~ 1 2 Year Hewers All underground Overall
  27. 18006/2262/55, 1GB to OBAD, 17.8.1955; OBAD to 1GB, 24.8.1955; Ges.Verb. File 'Arbettsausschu.6', Meet1ng of UVR Training Subcommittee (Arb.
  28. (1949). 18010/1238/49, OBAD Lageberlcht for 1st Q.
  29. (1948). 18010/1238/49, Quarterly report 1 st Q.
  30. 1m 3 OBADA 18006/3290/55. ABB to OBAD. 6.12.1955, annex:
  31. 2 'Bergarbeiter-Werbung OberflOsslg', Wtesbadener Kurler, 10.2.1949; 'Gestern zu wenig - Obermorgen viellelcht zu viel Kohle', Rhein-Ruhr Zeitwlg, 11.2.1949. 3 'Bergarbeiter-Werbung OberflOssig'; 'Gestern zu wenig - Obennorgen vtellelcht zu vtel Kohle'.
  32. 2 'He1m~t1ose haben wieder em Zuhause', Ruhr Nachrlchten. 7.1.1956: '1m Glldenhaua gilt ketne D-Mark', WAZ 27.1.1966. S RoeIen. 'DIe Bedeutung der Pestalozzld6rfer'.
  33. 2 'Neue Heimat am POtt',
  34. 2 A letter from the VfW argued that an increase in the domestic coal pIice 'kann angesichts der schwerwiegenden RQckwirkung auf die slch anbahnenden
  35. 2 A point stressed by the Gruppe Hambom's training director when asked for his view on the Pesta10zzi villages. See Kl1nkert Papers, Minutes of the ftrst meeting of the JHStWPV,31.7.1948.
  36. 2 AZG FUe 'I 1 26 Zuwelsung ... .'. Memo concerning meeting of the NRW mines Tartfausschu6, 28.1.1949- comments of MitteMefuaus. Janus. Rauhut and others.
  37. 2 BAK-ZwSt.H B102, 21258, Office of the US High ColDIDisSloner for Germany, P.RD1vts1on, "lbe West German Coal Jndusby since 1945', 14.11.1951, p.&. s SAK-ZwSt.H
  38. 2 Calculated from BAK (OMGUS) BICO COALCO 17/8186/30. DKBL to J.Chalrmen US/UKCCG. 2.11.1948 and attached Plan A figures.
  39. 2 DGBA File 'IGBergbau (1949-1966)'. 1GB Hauptverwaltung to DOB Vorstand.
  40. (1949). 2 For the growing concern about Neubergleute, see 1GB Bezirk I (ed.), Geschdftsbertcht for das Jahr 1948,
  41. 2 HStaD Kalkum BA Dulsburg 181, OBAD to BetrlebsfOhrer-Verelnlgung Hambom-Oberhausen, 15.8.1949. 3 Draft of a letter from BetrtebsfOhrerverelnlgung Hambom-Oberhausen to OBAD.
  42. 2 HStaD Kalkum SA Duisburg 181, BA Duisburg VerfOgung 417/272, 16.8.1951 concerning training of new miners in Diergardt-Mevissen company.
  43. 2 HStaD NW17 10 Report on cultural events in Lohberg. AprtII950: IGBE PresaeArchiv FIle 'Arbeltskritte 'fOr den Bergbau. Neubergleute. BIs 1952', clipping ~ DIe Neue~,
  44. 2 HStaD NW17, 141. lecture from Sieburg. 'Ziele staatsbOrgerlicher Wlliensbildung in der kulturel1en Bergmannsbetreuung'
  45. 2 HStaD NW17. 140, stetnmeyer to Reglerung&rat Kraemer. 18.11.1949. s See. for Instance. Terhorst. 'ZehnjAhrlge zusammenarbelt'.
  46. 2 HStaD NW73.47. Director, SVR, Draft of 'Bergarbelterwohnungsbauprogramm Ruhr 47/52'.30.3.1948. 3 LObcke, Die Subuenttonterung des Wohnungsbaues.
  47. (1955). 2 One does not have to scratch very far beneath the surface In the post-war years to find this type of attitude.
  48. 2 See chapter 6. p.28UJ. d S Klinkert Papers. File 'Nlederschriften der f.~:=gungen un ~o.t-d ___ "stal"."den' Minutes ofmeetlng ofvtUage leaders,
  49. 2 See for example the WAM's responses to the survey in HStaD
  50. (1951). 2 See HStaD NW62.386,
  51. (1948). 2 See the lament of the works' council at Friedrich der Gro~e colllery, in BBA 10, 507. 8etriebsrat to Verwaltung, 29.4.1949; 3 DGBA Ftle 'Industrieverband Bergbau 1946-1948. TAtlgkeitsbertchte', Monthly report for
  52. 2 The debates surrounding the 1983-1984 miners' strtke in BrttaIn show that this continues to be a problem. 3 Abelshauser. 'Kohle und Marktwtrtschaft'.
  53. (1951). 2 The funds were not actually made avallable
  54. 2 Thea P1rker. 'Die Jugend In der struktur unserer GeseDachaft'.
  55. 2 Together with a body calling itself the Sozialhygienischer Volksdienst it produced a brochure called 'Jungbergmann --Moment maH', warning of the dangers of addiction and 1 HStaD
  56. (1952). 21.12.1951. in HeinZ Tostorff. Der Bery~s~ Efn Kurzkommentar aber das Gesetz zw" F6rderung des Bergarbette:, WVfP"," ~s us Kohlenbergbau.
  57. 25 Jahre Katholfsches Lagerwerk e. V. versuc~: zettgeschlchtlfchen Obersfcht. Recklinghausen 1973; As early as 1957. the UVR ha n free beds In villages and hostels to provide holiday homes for deprived
  58. 252, B. v.Heyden to BIshop Keller,
  59. (1952). 3 'Jugend ohne innere Bindung. IV Industrieheime mit Komfort und ohne Seele',
  60. 3 0BADA 140.11/2304/56. 1GB to OBAD.
  61. 3 ABB annual report 1954. 4 Ges.Verb. File 'SBZ Arb 130.0-130.25', Copy of memo from Dr.
  62. (1950). 3 And of course there was the ever present fear that an accident or loss of health might make It impossible to maintain the payments. In
  63. (1946). 3 Control Council Law No.22, Works Council Law. repri?t~~oln Military Government Gazette Jor the British Zone,
  64. 3 Eg BBA 35, 237. Minutes of union meeting at mine Emscher Lippe. 3.4.1949. Comments of branch chaJrman BOing.
  65. (1948). 3 For a succinct. though somewhat later statement of this anxiety, see the speech of Siegfried Schroeder in IGBEA Pressearchiv, File 'ArbeitskrMte fOr den Bergbau.
  66. (1951). 3 From spring
  67. (1954). 3 Ges.Verb File '240.0-242.0 (JugendpIAne) (ab
  68. (1948). 3 HStaD NW41, 746, Minutes of a meeting of the 'Aussch~ zur Ausarbeltung elnes Lehrganges fOr Heimlelter'
  69. (1951). 3 HStaD NW41. 747. Curt Bondy. 'Gedanken zur atU3erbetrieblichen Beetnflussung von BergbaulehrUngen. Knappen undJungen Neubergleuten'.
  70. (1948). 3 HStaD NW53, 643, VfF to Minlster-Pra.sident NRW, 7.9.1948. An imperfect market 226 the LAnder did not preclude federal support. It was a mark of how bad relations between NRW and bizonal authortties were on the issue that in
  71. 3 HStaD NW9, 56, WAM, Internal memo from Referat Bergarbelterunterkunft to Gruppe Wohnraumbewtrtschaftung.
  72. 3 HStaD NWI0.83. copy of letter from Erhard to President.
  73. (1951). 3 It was noteworthy that the Generalvtkar did not waste a day 1n replying. At last the employers were having some reasonable thoughts on how to I brtn2~ ~Pl:;;;1r young miners, he wrote. BM AI0I, 253, Gen.vtkar to Carttasdlrektor Dr.Pe
  74. 3 It was only in the post -1953 period. when the labour market situation forced the mines to take every recruit seriously. that they began to offer seperate accommodation for Juvenile trainees.
  75. 3 On the arrangements for settling family members of new miners in other parts ofNRW, see HStaD NW9. 56. WAM to NRW Labour MiniStry. 28.12.1948 and subsequent documents.
  76. (1953). 3 Precis of Dozent Sieburg 'Zlele staatsbargerlicher Wtllensbildung in der kulturellen Bergmannsbetreuung'.
  77. (1948). 3 See for instance HStaD NW73, 47. WAM to IVB.
  78. 3 See the exchange between the WestfAlische WohnstAtten AG and the building authorities in HStaD
  79. (1952). 3 SoFoStA F1le 'Dr.Jantke SoZlalausschosse der ev. Klrche 4.11.1951. 12', Pastor P.Arnold Dannenmann. Vas Jugendproblem heute,
  80. (1948). 3 The IVB was renamed the 'Industrtegewerkschaft Bergbau' at the end of
  81. (1949). 3 The lack of interest of the vrw and VfF in the committee's proceedings was striking. In
  82. 3 Witness the new attention devoted to new miners In the local district reports. See p.313, th.2. 4 'Ole Aufgaben der neugewAhlten Betriebsn'lte.
  83. 32. 882, Report on meeting of producUon committee deputy-chalrmen, 25.6.1947; F01lmer-Ec:Wng. 'DIe PoliUk des IVB', p.SO. s BBA 32, 882. Report on meeUng of producuon committee deputy-chatrmen.
  84. 4 As at 20.6.1951. It is possible that additional funding was voted later in the year. 5 Source - as note 3.
  85. (1955). 4 Calculated from Stattsttsches Jahrbuch.filr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
  86. 4 Except in the limited sense that, given the prevailing capital shortage. the 'market rates' charged by ERP were stllliower than the mines would have had to pay to obtain loans from other sources. BAK-ZwSt.H B134.
  87. 4 for pie tb report on the youth conference In
  88. (1957). 4 Ges.Verb .• Helsingen Papers. Helslngen annual report
  89. 4 HStAD NW17, 10, Erich Burrlsch to Kultusmin.,
  90. 4 HStaD NW41, 769, Report on an interminlsterial meeting at the BWiM,
  91. 4 HStaD NW41. 764. Forstmann. 'AusfQhrung in der Aufslchtsratsltzung vom 21.11.1949'.
  92. 4 HStaD NW9, 112, WAM, Memo, 'Mlttelverteilung 40 Millionen-Programm', 25.1.1949, annex 1.
  93. (1948). 4 In Its first report after the currency reform the OBAD was already able to report on the miners' Increased commitment to higher earnings and output. See OBADA 18010/2924/48, Report for 3rd Q.
  94. 4 In terms of new and reconstruction, the 1 BAK-ZwSt.H BI02, 21574. 'Finanzielle Opfer der Fried. Krupp Bergwerke Essen im Wohnungsbau selt dem WAhrungssUchtag'. 3.7.1953; BI02, 4391. Kost to Erhard.
  95. (1952). 4 Injormattons-Rundbrtej zur sozialen Lage der Jugend,
  96. (1949). 4 It Is hard to prove this with certainty, but an indication is gtven by OBADA 18010/1238/49, OBAD Lageberlcht for 1. Q.
  97. 4 MfttBClurwender l(/SA 1952,1/2,p.S. 1 garden work. Settling the miner 361 Sometimes this image was linked to a belief that many newcomers had their own rural, stable qualities that needed to be protected.
  98. 4 Minutes of meeting in dining room of Zeche Friedrich-Heinrich. 11.7.1949: Minutes of Arb.aus.f.A meeting 18.11.1949; OBADA 12107/3231/49. Minutes of a meeting with directors of localinspectorates.
  99. (1948). 4 OBAD report for 3rd Q.
  100. (1948). 4 The IVB changed its name to Industrie-Gewerkschaft Bergbau at the end of
  101. (1951). 4 There was a sense of returning -or attempting to return - to a valid, German aesthetic. In a 1950 article on 1 HStaD "'1'0"41 761 'Jung'-rdlftDftft Moment mall', no date
  102. (1949). 4 Twelve month period. An impeifect market 243 Table 9: Expenditure on Ruhr Miners' Housing
  103. 4 Workforce figure is underground only. ABB quarterly report 1.4-30.6.1955:
  104. 5 'Ole MJttel tar Neubau sind so knapp'. wrote the WAM, 'dd es Dleht m6gl1eh lat .. den EtgenheJmstedlem, far die Sle elch wArmstene einsetzten. wesentltche Beltrage zurv~ zu stellen',
  105. 5 A reassuring point. however, is that the UVR evidently believed the revised figures to be accurate. See the figures
  106. 5 ConflrmaUon that the ReichheimstAtte regulations were not being used to the miners' disadvantage came in 1954 when the 10 Bergbau called for all houses to be Issued as ReichaheimBtAtten because of the (tax and other) benefits this brought the miner. See
  107. (1948). 5 Ge V b File "'K" vol 2'(The distinction between vol. I and vol.2 has been s.
  108. 5 Ges.Verb .• Helslngen Papers. Miscellaneous statistics. table 'Herkunftsgeblete 1946/7-1965'. 6 Source: Ges.Verb .• stdKW. table 'Belegschaftswechsel - Arbeiter Untertage. Ruhr'.
  109. 5 See discussions in BAK-ZwSt.H 8119. 1519. President ofNRW lAA to President BAVAV.2.4.1954. hal ( d) 6 See. for instance. the advertising brochure Zeche Hannover and Hanni e ..
  110. (1951). 5 Table 12: 1uvenile intake 1946-58 Ye.a.r overall from outside mining area 1.
  111. (1950). 6 At an important meeting In
  112. 6 BAK-ZwSt.H B134. 1367. copy ofleUer from SVR to WAM. 16.10.1950;
  113. 6 Concurrent with these efforts, BICO called upon the vrvv to draw up 1 HStaD
  114. (1955). 6 Source: BAK-ZWSt.H B102, 21258. BWiM III A 2. 'Zusammenstellung alIer fOr den Kohlenbergbau sen der Wclhrungsreform durchgefOhrten Kreditma.l3nahmen·.
  115. 769. Report on an interministerial meeting at the BWlM,
  116. (1949). 8 'Gesetz zur MUderung dr1ngender 80zlaler NotstAode (SoforthUfegesetz - SHG) 8.8.1949'.
  117. (1948). 8: Cause of underground wastage Wastage (In
  118. A view not restricted to older officials alone;.reU' ~;:tt~~3~e:~~: Handakten Rudi guast. FIle"M.
  119. AlOl, 253, Carttas-Verband fOr die stadt Bottrop to
  120. (1950). An imperfect market 235 growing unemployment and. in 1950-1 particularly. about West Germany's burgeOning trade deficit. 1 Nevertheless. until 1950. Erhard was largely able to keep his freedom of action. It was the outbreak of the Korean war in
  121. (1949). An imperfect market 248 much living space. It was understandable that this was so, but it meant that the SVR plan was inadequate to meet the workforce's needs. At the end of
  122. (1948). and
  123. and 'Es tst gepfuscht worden. ECA-Stedlung Essen mit nassen Kellem und gertssenen WADden'. extract from DIe BergbauIndustrte 1953. Nr.4: Ferdinand Stmonett, 'Die Axt'
  124. (1948). and 1949 the Social Ministry support amounted to 36.500 OM. which was so small it was presumably meant for cultural and welfare poliCies alone.
  125. (1948). and 1949. the Allies had (as the example of miners' housing has shown) grown increasingly concerned about the fallure to direct investment towards heavy industry. about the lack of response to the Federal Republic's
  126. (1954). Annual report for
  127. Apart from Captain ElphiCk,3 there was also a more senior figure, the welfare officer of the UK/USCCG, C.S.Hudson, who went so far as to spend a week
  128. ArbeltskrAfte fOr den Bergbau. Neubergleute. Bis 1952' Untitled excerpt from Westdeutsches Tageblatt,
  129. (1982). Argument Sonderband 94.
  130. (1950). As well as heralding a new urgency in American representations. the Korean war also initiated a new phase of growth in the West Gennan economy and this too exposed the weaknesses in coal mining.
  131. (1983). Auf dem Weg in die Marktwirtschaft: Organisierte Industrteinteressen, Wtrtschaftsverwaltung und Besatzungsmacht in Nordrhein-Westfalen 1945 - 1947'. in G.Brunn (ed.), Nordrhetn-West{alen und seine Anfdnge nach 1945/1946,
  132. BBA 10.137. Memo of discussion on 6.12.1951 with Oberbaurat Zahn and Memo of d18cu881on on 6.4.1952
  133. (1982). be added that the newcomer who proved himself in the mine 01' eatabl1shed contacts with the local community could often flnd some contact which speeded up the rate at which he obtained a house. Interviews with Hermann Kuhn. JuneJuly
  134. (1979). Bednarz. Homar, 'Die FluktuaUon 1m Ruhrbergbau und die Versuche zu ihrer Bekampfung'. (Diplom-Arbeit. Cologne University. 1957/8) Benz. Wolfgang. Wirtschaftspolitik zwischen Demontage und Wahrungsreform',
  135. Beitrag des Ruhrbergbaus zur LOsung des F10chtlingsproblems'.
  136. belastet' as Walter Niemann put it. see HStaO NW41. 761. Niemann to Weber 19.4.1949.
  137. Bergarbeiterwohnungsbau 1m rhe1n1scb-westfAltschen StelnkohlenbezJrk'. p.S44: Ges.Verb. Flle Wohnungswesen. Aussch\.\lS 9', MInutes of Housing Committee on 24.3.1955.
  138. Bergarbelterwohnungsbauprogramm Ruhr 47/52' (the initial designation of the new programme, MR), 30.3.1948; Translated copy of letter from
  139. Bergarbettertnteressenvertretung 1m nOrdUchen Ruhrgeblet',
  140. Bergbau zieht auch BergmannssOhne wieder an', WAZ, Moers edition. 25.10.1952. 4 Croon and utennann, Zeche unci Gemetnde, p.l 09fT. 5 Juvenile trainees and mining apprentices taken on by hard coal mines in NRW.
  141. Bestlmmungen Qber die GewAhrung von Be1h1lfen a1s Ersatz fOr fehlendes Elgenkapltal',
  142. (1948). Besuch d~r GutehofTnungshtltte.
  143. BICO BECG PASr 11/134-3/15. Undated copy of memo from VfW, Abt. I A. 'InvestlUon und Ftnanzierungsplan des Vert Wirtschaftsgebiets fOr das HaushaltsJahr 1949/1950';
  144. Bis 1952', Minutes of the 3rd conference of new miner hostel reps.
  145. (1956). but It I evident from the Ust of sources that they are Hannover t ht
  146. (1949). Caritas Berglehrl1ngsheim Bottrop. Ein Beitrag zum chnstllchen Nachwuchs des Bergmanns'.
  147. (1948). Chapter 5: An imperfect market. Financing workforce regeneration in the social market economy 1: Weak foundations: house and hostel construction in the 'imperfect market' The currency refonn and the mines In preparation for the currency reform,
  148. Circular No.CJ 92 to mining companies and coll1ertes.
  149. Circular to all coWeIY managements. 17.3.1947:
  150. Circular to colliery managements and labour exchanges. 17.3.1947; 16301/927/46. LAA Westfalen-Llppe. Circular. signed Dr.Herwegen.
  151. Circular to district representatives, 25.11.1948;
  152. CO Hist Br 3/404-1/6. UK/USCCG paper. 'Financial Problems in the coal industry'. 27.8.1948; UK/USCCG to Joint Chairmen BICO. 9.12.1948. Appendix F: 'Finance for non-mine owned miners' housing'.
  153. (1949). Comparison is complicated by the fact that the standard of repair had probably risen since
  154. Copy of report from Fischer. 'Alkohol tn Bergarbeiterwohnhelmen . 27.4.1950. 3 VorschlAge zum Bau und zur Ftlhrung von Berglehrltngs- und Knappenhelmen'.
  155. Copy of untitled speech dated 4.12.1952. signed Dr.FOtterer, Abtellungslelter I.
  156. (1952). Das Gedlnge, seine Bedeutung und seine Wirkung auf die zwlschenmenschl1chen Beziehungen im Ruhrkohlenbergbau, (Dissertation,
  157. (1947). Das Nachwuchsproblem 1m Bergbau', Bwu:i.esarbettsblatt, 1950,9, pp.331-333, here p.332f: 'Zur P11ege bergmannischer berufsethischer,Gesinnung', Arbeitsblattfilr dte brtttsche Zone,
  158. (1966). Den vertrtebenen Bergleuten droht jetzt Vertretbung aus dem Berut,1n Ost- WldMltte1deutsche Hef1nt1trVXe.
  159. (1983). deSCribed in an interview the battle between Terhorst. the labour director. and the BetriebsfOhrer.
  160. (1949). despite good weather, completed repairs amounted to less than one third of the SVR's target monthly figure and, as the WAM report suggested, were also far below the 3 pre-currency reform levels.
  161. (1953). Die Aufnahme der SOvietzonenfluchtlinge in Westdeutschland Bertcht der Sozialforschungsstelle an der UniversiUlt Munster
  162. Die Erziehung zum Eigentumsgedanken', Die VoUcshetmst4tte.
  163. (1952). Die geschlchtl1che und rAuml1che Entwlcklung des Bergarbe1telWOhnungsbaus1m Ruhrgeblet' (Olss.,
  164. (1953). DIe Jugend In d~r Struktur unserer GeseDschaft', passfnL 5 293' '1 CoW'Nl District PoIlUcallnteWgence Report
  165. Die Nachwuchssorgen des Steinkohlenbergbaus. Grande des Nachwuchsmangels und Versuche zu ihrer Behebung', Gliickauf, 1949,85,27/28, pp.477-485, here p.78. 4 See also 'Zur Berufsethik des Bergmanns', Arbettsblatt.fi1.r die brtttsche Zone.
  166. (1949). Die Nachwuchssorgen des Steinkohlenbergbaus. GrOnde des Nachwuchsmangels und Versuche zu ihrer Behebung', GlUckatif,
  167. (1955). Die subjektiven und obJekUven Abkehrgnlnde bel sieben Zechen des westdeutschen Stelnkohlenbergbaues In threr Auswirkung auf die Sicherung des Belegschaftsstandes unter Tage'. mimeographed Ms.
  168. (1970). Die verhinderte Neuordnung. Frankfurt
  169. Discussion before arrival of CCCG, 19.9.1949, see comments of
  170. (1955). DIUllV~ apllY "t (
  171. (1951). Dle PestalomdOrferdes Bergbaus'. Bergftef.heU
  172. (1951). Dte Subventtonterung des Wohnungsbaues tnsbes. sett 1945. MOnster
  173. Dusseldorf and Bonn resolved to offer the favourable financial 5 terms. the 1GB had been demanding more support for home buyers.
  174. e A fact obliquely conftrmed
  175. eg StaM Arbe1tsam.t Dortmund. 11. AA Do to ABS. 25.11.1954; StaM ArbeitBamt Bochum. 27. AA Heme. Nebenstelle Wanne-Eickel. Reports on new miner r=uJ.tment.
  176. ego BAK-ZwSt.H BI02.21395. BWIM to Ehmke, BAM. 31.10.1952 which talks of Hibernia's problems In finding occupants for refugee housing and HStaO NWI0.32.
  177. (1982). Ein Brlefwechsel zwtschen dem Hohen Kommlssar John McCloy und Bundeskanzler Konrad Adenauer'. Vterteljahreshefte.filr Zettgeschichte.
  178. (1982). Entstehung und Auswirkung der "Verordnung zur ErhOhung der FOrderleistung und des Leistungslohnes 1m Bergbau vorn 2.MArz 1939"', Vterteljalveshejtejiir Zettgeschtchte.
  179. (1951). Entwfcklung und Wtrksamkeit,
  180. (1953). Ergebnlsprotokoll Qber die Sltzung vom 4.Februar Qber die endgOlUge Fassung der Musterachuldurkunden unci Vertrlge fOr Elgenhelme unci KlelnsIed1ungen'. no date
  181. F29. 368/2, Clipping from West:flllsche Rundschau (Hatttngen). 17.10.1955 on 1GB survey. 76% wanted a detached family house but only 48% would consider becoming owners because of anxiety about 111 health etc.
  182. (1974). Fabrtk FamUfe F~~: Bet1riJge zur SoziDlgesch.fchte des AUtIltJs fm Indust:rtezeUa1ter. Wuppe Roden. Gimter von, Geschtchte der Stadt Dulsburg, DulSburg
  183. (1951). Fc5rderturm. works newspaper of the Gruppe Hambom, GSAG. F?r a clear stateJ~nt of the works' newspapers' intended function, see Alfons Neukirchen, Ole Werkszeitschrift als Mittel betrtebl1cher MenschenfOhrung', BAG Ewald-KOnig Ludwig,
  184. Festfolge. Feterstunde der Conco a
  185. Fig 3: Sources of subsidy for miners' housing 1948-9
  186. Fig 4: Planned workforce growth - underground only
  187. (1950). Fig 5: Young workers in the Ruhr mines
  188. File '300-30.1 Ausbildungvon Neubergleuten',
  189. (1954). File 'Arbeitsaussch~', 'Merkbatt fOr die Werbung von Neubergleuten',
  190. File 'Arbeitsaussch~', Meeting of UVR Training Subcommittee (Arb.aus.f.A). 31.8.1955; Ges.Verb. File 'SBZ Fhlchtl1nge Arb 130.30-132.15', Meeting with BAM.
  191. FIle 'Arbeitsausschu6', Minutes of Arb.aus.f.A meeting 18.11.1949.
  192. File 'Arbeitskreis-Arbettsdirektoren 1952 -1956', Minutes of meeting of Essen/Gelsenkirchen district, 13.5.1954; Minutes of meeting of Recklinghausen district,
  193. (1949). File 'IGBergbau. MonatsberIchte der IGBergbau 1949', Monthly reports for April, May and
  194. File 'Jugend', 1GB Hauptverwa1tung, Circular Nr.88/51 to works counctls and socta1 repreeentat1Yes.
  195. File 'Rundschreiben AusbUdung 1946-1950'. DKBL. Circular No.
  196. File 'Rundschreiben Werbung 1946-1949',
  197. (1953). File 'Untemehmensverband 662-668', Tclugkeltsberlcht der RAG
  198. File 'Zuweisung von ArbeltskrAften aus anderen Bezlrken (UmschOler), Minutes of 2 meeting of Arbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeltsamt-Bergbau. 8.5.1953. here p.3 - report on SoFoSt investigation into wastage. 3 Untersuchung Vincke Lager. op.cit.. interview 3.
  199. (1951). Flghtlng for their hearts and souls 416 1 den Betrtebsra.ten'. Other prtests made the same observation.2 In
  200. Flle 'Jugend', August Enderle to August Schmidt, 12.5.1949; 1GB Abte1lung Schulung u. BIldung to Enderle,
  201. (1958). Fluktuation 1m Stetnkohlenbergbaul Was kann noch dagegen geschehen? Empfehlungen zu den
  202. for example.
  203. (1953). for example. the total cost ofrecruttment and induction was around 1.5 million DM. Ges.Verb. File 'Arbeitsausschul3' Arb.aus.f.A meeting.
  204. (1948). for instance, 'SchOpfertsches Bergmannstum,' Ib3'td.Da~ berg:nl~4~i.S.c;.: ErzAhlgut' Der FOrderturm.
  205. (1955). for instance, BAK-ZwSt.H BI02, 33091. annex to minutes of AM meetting on 10.4.1956: Paper. 'Jugendarbeitsschutzaktion der 1GB',
  206. for Instance, Herbert Berger. 'Als Neul1ng 1m Ptltt'.
  207. for instance, Johann Platte, 'Die Nachwuchsfrage im Kohlenbergbau.',
  208. for instance.
  209. (1948). For their part. the Allies continued to apply pressure to the Gemlan authorities for a speedy solution to the mining industry's capital requirements.
  210. (1977). Friedeburg, Ludwig von, 'Zur Fluktuation im Steinkohlenbergbau. Ergebnisse einer industriesoziologischen Untersuchung des Instituts fur Sozialforschung uber die Griinde der FluktuationsdifIerenzen bei sechs Zechen 1m Ruhrgebiet'. Bundesarbeitsblatt
  211. Ftle '240.0-242.0 (Jugendplcme) (ab 1954)', DKBL to BWiM.
  212. Ftle 'I 1 26 Zuwel8ung von ArbeitskrAften aus anderen Beztrken (Um8chQler)',
  213. Ftle 'IGBergbau (1949-1966)', 1GB Hauptverwaltung to DOB Vorstand.
  214. Ftle 'Wohnungswesen Aussch~ 9', Minutes of housing committee meeUng,
  215. Ftle "'K", vo1.2',
  216. (1986). Gastarbeiterzuwanderung: Wanderungsstrome und Wanderungspolitik
  217. Gedanken zur Volkablldungaarbelt 1m SteInkohlenbergu',
  218. (1948). Gute aIte Bergmannsart',
  219. Gutermuth's stress at a March meeting of the wages commission that henceforth local new miners must be at least as well paid as outsiders.
  220. (1950). h Dozent for kulturelle HStaD NW17. 10. StAdt1sche '::l~ 1~ ~clmchau auf die KulturBergmannsbetreuung. Berlcht. 1.5.1952':_~ Lohberg'lm Januar
  221. Handakten Rudl Quast, File 'Arbeltskrels-Arbeltsdlrektoren 1952 -1956', Minutes of meeting of Essen/Gelsenkirchen district, 13.5.1954: Minutes of meeting of Recklinghausen district.
  222. Hans Heinrich Bischoff 'Die AltersgUederung der Arbeiter 1m Stelnkohlenbergbau'.
  223. (1953). Heim und He~t u~kottle Ausgabe'. Aprtl
  224. Heisingen Papers. miscellaneous statistics. table'Herkunftsgebiete 1946/7-1965'.
  225. (1959). HeJm und Herd und Sport und Spiel des Bergmanos', in Westdeutsche WlrtBchafts-Monographle, FoJge I, Stelnkohle Ausgabe Aprl11953, cited in 'Ole Entwlcldung des Bergarbe1terwohnungsbaus In Heme', no author, no date.
  226. Helmat und Front. Versuch, zehn Krtegse~.nnerungen aus der Arbeiterklasse des Ruhrgeblets zu verstehen',
  227. Hennann POnder to BICOJ.Sec.
  228. (1982). her Merkur 4 Ibid. and 'Statt Kasemengeist die echte PersOnlichkelt'.
  229. Herwegen's comments in OBADA 16301/969/47. ABB. Circular to colliery managements and labour exchanges, 17.3.1947. 2 Ibid; Breder. Geschtchten oor Ort.
  230. (1948). HStaD NW73, 259,
  231. (1952). HStaD NW73.136. Professor Knlpplng to
  232. (1983). in Zeche uncI Gemeinde , for example, makes it clear that there was a widespread (though often inaccurate) awareness of what working relations in mining were like. - cited
  233. (1975). Industrtearbetter prtvat Etne Studfe iIber prtvate Le~ormen und perslRtltche Interessen.
  234. (1945). Industrteverand Bergbau 1946-1948. Tc'ltigkeltsbertcht'. Memo, 'Werbung fOr den Bergbau', 6.5.1947; Hanns W.Brose, Die Nachwuchsnot tm deutschen Bergbau..
  235. Interview with Walther KOpping, on 16.8.1983;
  236. (1950). It was noteworthy, for example, that the BWiM had consistently endorsed the industry's demands and had pleaded the industry's case in discussions with 4 other departments.
  237. it was then proposed that only culturally valuable films should be shown so as to raise the intellectual and spiritual level of the miners. And a further justification for showing the films was found - it would keep the newcomers away from 1
  238. (1980). Jahre die wir ntcht verges sen 1945-1950 Recklinghiiuser Bergbaugewerkschaftler erinnem sich,
  239. (1957). Jugend In Beruf und FrelZelt',
  240. Jugendwohnheime und Jugendheimleiter',
  241. (1948). Kameradschaft - das Gesetz unserer Zeit .. .', Die Bergbau-Industrte,
  242. (1948). Kommission ftlr Bergmannswohlfahrt'. On Its first meeting. see WWA 522 (OMOUS) CO 'HIST BR 3/404-1/7. UKjUS CCO. Report to BICO for
  243. Kulturelle Bergmannsbetreuung, elne Notwe~!~gk~~~ Gedanken zur kulturellen Bergmannsbetreuung
  244. Kurzprotokol1 der 8. 5itzung des Sonderausschusses'. 22.6.1949: Z13. 198. WAM to Sonderausschu6. 8.6.1949. An lmperiect market 231 In
  245. (1982). L.Falk & W.BIOmich (eds), Etnkommenssteuergesetz. Kommentar,
  246. LageIWerk to Bishop of MOnster,
  247. Lager Mensch" - Symptom einer Entwtcklung', Neue Zettung .
  248. Lagersprecher', In Ibid., pp.407-410; Arbeitskrels Stadttellgeschlchte Hochlarmark, 'Neubergleute In Reckllnghausen-Hochlarmark 1945-1950',
  249. (1952). MAnner von Morgen', Junlor Magaztn
  250. Meeting of Albeitskrds der Arbeltsclirektoren. BezIrk Recldtngbausen.
  251. Memo 19.3.1956 and 4.5.1956; 'Hambomer Bergbau will kelne Ausla.nder anlegen'. Neue Ruhr Zettung Dulsburg edition. 3.8.1955. It was Concordia which withdrew Its request.
  252. Memo about discussions between CCCG and mine directors of DKBL district
  253. Memo of meeting between CCCG and mines
  254. miner 370 periods of unemployment. Beyond making the workers 'krisenfest' there was the longer term hope that giving them the chance to own property would enhance their self-esteem and their integration into society.
  255. Mining thus found itself in a similar position to the 1948-1951 period. Then as now, the controlled coal price deprived it of the resources it needed. Whereas prior to 1951 the major problem had been finding capital for investment.
  256. Minutes of executive meeting of JugendheimstAttenwerk e.V.
  257. Minutes of meeting with Betrlebsft1hrervereln1gung 'Linker Niederrhein'.
  258. Minutes of the Ruhr mining conference on 31.8.1947 In Bochum, no date;
  259. Minutes ofmeetlng on 24.2.1950. Pit mUitartsm & insubordinate recruits 321 currency refonn period was not characterised by exceptional redundancies.
  260. MInutes ofRuhr JDinlDg conferenn' on 31.8.1947 In Bocbum. no date. tb woaD • ASD-FESt N 25, 1946-1948, SPD aezirk westl.Westfalen. Report OIl e council electtons,
  261. (1957). More stgntftcant was the Miners' Bonus Scheme, but even this could not prevent wastage from outpacing recruitment. It is therefore not surprising that
  262. N1ederschrtften der Arbe1tstagungen und Vortragsveranstaltungen • 'Sammlung Vorstandssttzungen ab 1956' Archiye of the Landesoberberaamt. Dortmund (OBAPA) I 1002.
  263. Notes of a meeting In the Foreign Office. 22.8.1952; Hibernia to DKBL.
  264. (1946). OBADA 16301/2448/49 DKBL to OBAD, 5.11.1949. annex: Source: or - , h be • ba F
  265. Obersicht Ober die fOr den Bergarbetterwohnungsbau durch NRW berettgestellten Wohnungsbaumittel',6.6.1951.
  266. (1953). Oer Umschichtungsproz~ der Belegschaften im westdeutschen Steinkohlenbergbau·. (Dissertation. MOnster University.
  267. (1956). Ole Bedeutung der PestalOZZldOrfer tar die Gewinnung einea bergbaulichen Nachwuchses' (DIss.,
  268. (1955). Ole Se.6haftmachung der vom westdeutsche~ Stelnkohlenbergbau aus bergfremden Gebleten angeworbenen Berglehrllnge, (Exame nsarbe It. Sozlalschule Gelsenkirchen,
  269. (1946). On status see PRO F0942. 509, NGCC. 'Stelnkohle production in the British occupied Zone of Gennany. RevIew of production'.
  270. On the shortage of equipment. see BBA 35, 36, Emscher-Llppe to RCD4.
  271. p.1. s HStaD NW73.260,
  272. (1981). p.261. note 54: Z13, 198,
  273. (1953). p.5S and 1GB
  274. (1984). p.898. note 23: HStaD NW73. 100. extract from G1UckauJ 1952: 'Der Wiederau1bauminister zum Wohnungsbau fOr 8ergleute'.
  275. (1948). perIod following the First World War, when a similar problem had applied, a special coal tax had been introduced, the proceeds of which had gone to finance miners' housing. Both NRW and the DKBL advocated the reintroduction of such a coal tax and in
  276. (1956). PiLtt hat mich ausgespuckt. Em Ruhrkumpel erzdhl.t aus semem Leben,
  277. (1945). POnder to BICO, 29.11.1948,
  278. (1948). Present position with regard to the hard coal mining industry'. note for British M.G. by British chainnan.
  279. (1985). Protokollen des Vertrauensrats der Zeche "Friedrtch der Gro.6e"', in Lutz Niethammer et a1 (eds.), "Die Menschen machen ihre Geschichte ntcht aus.freien Stilcken. aber sie machen sie se[bsf',
  280. (1953). Reglerung Amsberg, 5.143, Report of the Verblndungsstelle der Regterungsprlsldenten Amsberg, OOsseldorf, MQnster for
  281. (1975). Rekonstruktion und Wiederaujbaubedingungen in der amerikanischen und britischen Zone,
  282. (1945). remaining after hired year after being hired five years
  283. (1949). Report to BICO for October 1948. See also BHA 8.404, DKBL, Erhebung Ober WerksfOrsorgeelnrlchtungen 1m Stelnkohlenbergbau,
  284. (1970). resettlement and subsequent group history since 1945. The Hague
  285. (1957). Rhetntsch-westft1ltsche ZettschriftJUr VolIcskunde,
  286. s BAK-ZwSt.H 8134,3727. 7th report of the UnterausschulS m.
  287. s BAK-ZwSt.H BI02, 33189, BWiM IIIA3 (lmhAuser) to Min Ogt.
  288. s HStaD NW9.85. WAM IVC to BWoM.
  289. (1950). s In
  290. (1950). Scb1-Frelzelt unserer Berglehrllnge In WlllIngen'. BAG EwaId-KlInIg Ludwig, Feb/MarCh
  291. (1954). Schlu.tJbertcht'; EUsabeth Pren, Die WohnwUnsche der Bergarbel.ter. Soztologf.sche Erhebung, Deutung und Krittk der Wohnvorstellungen etnes Berufes,
  292. Schmidt papers, File '1900', doc. 1946-10, 'KUlZer Berlcht aber eme Sltzung mit Vertretern der MIIltArreglenmg
  293. (1946). SchmIdt Papers. File '1900'. Doc.
  294. (1953). See also J.Tdem. Wohn- und Lebensstll unserer Bergleute',
  295. Settling the miner 373 In November the committee came to the Ruhr. At the centre of discussions was the question whether more could be done to promote owner-occupied homes.
  296. signed Dr.Herwegen, 25.4.1946. At the beginning of 1947. refugees were already by far the biggest group amongst the mining apprentices haUlng from outside the Ruhr. See OBADA 16301/969/47. ABB. Circular to colllery managements and labour exchanges.
  297. (1958). Soziale Schichtung und sozialer Wandel in etner Industrtegemetnde. Eine soziologische Untersuchung der Stadt Eusktrchen Stuttgart
  298. (1949). Stellungnahme des Vorstandes des IVBergbau zur Anwerbung von Neubergleuten', Die Bergbau-Industrte.
  299. (1980). StTeuselkuchen in Ickern,
  300. suppressed by the autarchy drive. war and reconstruction - was beginning to reemerge.
  301. table 'AufteUung des Abganges nach GrOnden -Arbeiter insgesamt. Ruhr' and same for workers underground. Figures untll 1954 include deaths at work. which averaged about 1.000 a year.
  302. Table 17: Age structure of underground workforce (cohorts as %1 4 ~ ~ liM:Q ]Jill liMB .liMa ~ .llru ~ ~ li!QZ CQhQrl 16-24 1l.3 15.39
  303. Table 19: Age structure of Heisingen intakel ~ PrQ12QrtiQn Qf wQrkfQr~e in fQIlQwin" a"e ~a1e"Qrie~ (O4); :.l8
  304. (1949). Table 20; Fonner profession of new miners in % 1 ~ unskilled skilled white Agric. Industrial total engineerg. other total collar & buildg.
  305. (1952). That sort of thing went down well with the state. After a visit to the Ruhr in October
  306. The Americans saw the strength of the opposition to the programme as a sign that vested interests were being undennined. Certainly, there was anxiety that 6 provision of fridges. for example. would force other builders to do likewise.
  307. (1952). the article 'ObJektlve und subJekUve Berufsnot der Jugend', lriformattonsRundbriej zur sozialen Lage der Jugend.
  308. the calls for the mines' reception camp in Bochum Hlltrop to be closed. BBA 32,741, Minutes ofOtrectors'
  309. (1954). The Friedrich Krupp Bergwerke being a notable example, see Gee.Verb.
  310. (1956). The gap between the Ruhr's tariffs and those of its competitors began to decrease as a result of underlying changes in world energy supply. Between
  311. (1956). The pressure was on the state to offer more substantial relief.
  312. (1948). the Reconstruction Ministry. laid down that every house should have a vegetable garden and an integral stall. he did so not only to meet the wishes of the established miners, but also explicitly to help root the newcomers in local sol1.
  313. (1945). The reluctant elite 268 expanded. In
  314. The reluctant elite 277 The eagnerness of these administrations was a reminder that both Mines' Inspectorate and Labour Administration had been involved from the 1920's in the formulation and development of the apprenticeship strategy.
  315. the Ruhr's long-term competltiveness problem - apparent in the 1920's but then 1 Bahl. Staatltche Politik. p.SI: Abelshauser, 'Kohle und Marktwirtschaft',
  316. the two newspaper reports above and 'Neubergleute nicht mehr gefragt. Ole Wunde des Ruhrgeblets: 15,000 Arbeltslose', Welt am Sonntag,
  317. The works newspaper of the GBAG's Hamborn Group, for instance, bemoaned the passing of the 'in sich geschlossenen, hannonischen und von Berufsethos 5 erfullten Menschen' of past generations. The miner of the past was a man at 1 HStaD
  318. (1949). there had in fact been few school leavers to take on. because several Uinder introduced in that year a 9th school class in order to limit youth 1 See chapter 6,
  319. (1948). These images reoccur In countless other places. In
  320. Thus at the same time as Senft from the Gruppe Hamborn was one of the 1 HStaO Kalkum BA Duisburg 181, Memo from Inspektton II. (Gruppe Hambom).
  321. to mining companies and collieries 19.3.1948.
  322. (1948). Uberblick Uber den Umjang. die btsherige Abwtcklung und die wettere Durc1!Jij.hrung des BergarbeU:erwohnungsbaues,
  323. Urn Arbeit und auch Heimat hier zu finden Und altern Stamm uns gliicklich zu verbinden. An even more theatrical attempt to emphasise th1s continuity with the past and to celebrate the steadfastness of the miner was a ceremony at the
  324. V 102 to mining company directors,
  325. (1954). Velb. F1le 'Untemehmensverband 662-668', RAG repmt far'
  326. Verb File 'Unternehmensverband 662-668', RAG paper, tBergarbelterbeireu~g'. no date (1951); 'Der "Lager Mensch" - Symptom elner Entwlcklung' • 3 Gee.Verb. FIle tArbeltsausacb~ 1948-1958', Minutes of Arb.aua.fA meet1ng.
  327. (1948). Von Art und Seele des Bergmanns', Der F'6rc1erttam.
  328. Vorlcluftge Richtlininen fOr die c'lrtzl1chen Anlegeuntersuchungen ... , 1.3.1951. 3 'Sechs Jahre Au6enstelle 8ergbau',
  329. (1984). Walter KOpplng, 'Als Betrtebsobmann auf "Julia" 1947-1949',
  330. WAM IA 303 to CCG(BE) Manpower Dept. 19.2.1948; NW42.912, paper from Nebelung. 'Vorschl4ge far die Beselttgung der Nacbwuch~not 1m Ruhrkohlenbergbau'. 28.4.1948; FQtterer. 'Bergmannswohnstatten 1m Rubrgeblet.
  331. (1950). was well above the average for the following period. One reason for the increase in that year seems to have been the modest improvement in Knappschaft payments in mid-1949 which made both miners and employers more willing to consider retirement.
  332. (1947). Wasta2e under2round due to unfitness for mining work (excluding old
  333. WWA F29.335. appendix to General Director. DKBL. Circular Nr.IV-14 to minlng companies.
  334. Z13, 198, DKBL to vew, 15.7.1948: 'Die benOUgten Mittel aus den ordentlichen Etats der IAnder bzw. den Zweizonenc\mtem bereltzustellen, erschelnt bel dem derzeltigen Zustand der Offentlichen Flnanzen ausslchtslos';
  335. Z13, 198. 'Protokoll Ober die von der VfW - Abt. Bergbau - elnberufene Sitzung'.
  336. (1949). Z4, 58, Wirtschaftsrat des Vereinigten Wirschaftsgebietes, Orucksache
  337. (1963). ZehnjAhrlge Zusammenarbelt 1m Dlenste der Mttbestlmmtmg beIm Hambomer Bergbau'. (unpub MS.
  338. (1951). Zusammenfassung der wtchttgsten VorgAnge Ober die Verhandlungen betr.: ERPProgramm

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