BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with Ni internal electrodes are co-fired in\ud reducing atmospheres to avoid oxidation of the electrode. Although dielectric materials are doped by\ud acceptor, donor and amphoteric dopants to minimize the oxygen vacancy content, there is still a\ud large concentration of oxygen vacancies that are accommodated in the BaTiO3 active layers. In\ud general, ABO3 perovskites demonstrates a strong ability to accommodate the oxygen vacancies and\ud maintain a regular pseudo-cubic structure. Oxygen deficient barium titanate can be transformed to a\ud hexagonal polymorph (h-BT) at high temperatures1,2. In this paper, we report the new modulated and\ud long range ordered structures of non-stoichiometric BaTiO3-δ that are observed in the electrically\ud degraded Ni-BaTiO3 MLCCs at low temperature
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