Location of Repository

Learning to be Norwegian : a case study of identity management in religious education in Norway

By Lars Laird Eriksen

Abstract

My PhD project is called ”Learning to be Norwegian. Religion and national\ud identity in religious education in Norway.” It is a case study of how religion is\ud mobilised in the construction of national identity, both from above and below.\ud The "above" perspective is operationalised as a discourse analysis of Curricula\ud in Norway from 1974 to 2008. The “below” perspective is operationalised as\ud participant observation in classrooms, following 15 teachers in 3 secondary\ud schools in Eastern Norway.\ud In terms of theoretical questions asked of this material, I engage with the\ud literature on multiculturalism in Western Europe (Barry 2001, Baumann 1996,\ud 1999, Eriksen 2007, Fuglerud and Eriksen 2007, Joppke 2004, 2009, Modood\ud 2007, Parekh 2006, Phillips 2007). I identify a distinction between liberalists,\ud multiculturalists and hybridists in terms of the key question: What is the best\ud way to understand groups with identity claims? My main claim to originality in\ud is that people can be described as engaging in fluidising and solidifying\ud practices – making social structures more fluid or more solid through their social\ud activities. This implies that there are different levels of viscosity in how solid or\ud fluid groups with identity claims are. Theorists dealing with groups with identity\ud claims, including the sociology of religion, education and identity, would benefit\ud from a variable social ontology of groups. I propose that the terms “Viscosity” -\ud “boundaries” and “work”, taken together provide one such framework that\ud works well with my data.\ud Significant empirical findings include a shift over time in the meaning of the\ud term “values”. In 1974, the word “values” was connected primarily with ethics\ud in the formal curricula. By the 1990s this had changed. It was now also, and\ud dominantly, connected to notions of identity. Religion is consistently mobilised\ud for identity through metaphors of personal stability, or and through establishing\ud metaphorical connections that make the nation appear as sharing crucial features\ud with the individual self.\ud These ideas are revisited in classroom ethnographic data. The assumptions found\ud in the curriculum are challenged by the practices of teachers and pupils. It is\ud clear that the most important concepts of identity, such as “Muslim” or\ud “Norwegian” are being worked on by defining what and who is on the inside\ud and what and who is on the outside. Nevertheless, the classrooms become\ud effective learning communities, though more through shared actions, shared\ud discussions and well-managed disagreement than through sameness and shared\ud values. Teachers and pupils use the concept of “facts” both to further their own\ud normative arguments, but also to remain out of the reach of accusations of\ud cultural or religious insensitivity. Finally, my study undermines static\ud conceptions of how discourses affect the social world. As an alternative, I try to\ud develop an understanding of actors engaging in fluidising and solidifying\ud practices

Topics: BL, LB
OAI identifier: oai:wrap.warwick.ac.uk:4525

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2007). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about qualitative research. doi
  2. (2009). Adskillelsens politikk : multikulturalisme - ideologi og virkelighet [The politics of separation: muliticulturalism - ideology and reality].
  3. (2003). Applications of case study research. Thousand Oaks ; London,
  4. (1996). Arguing and thinking: a rhetorical approach to social psychology. Cambridge, doi
  5. (1995). Banal Nationalism. doi
  6. (2004). Between Foucault and Goffman – between discourse in the abstract and face-to-face interaction." doi
  7. Case of Folgerø and others v. Norway -
  8. (1998). Case Studies".
  9. (2009). Case study research : design and methods. doi
  10. (1990). Classroom Ethnography: Empirical and Methodological Essays. Milton Keynes,
  11. (1999). Comments on Shachar and Spinner-Halev: An Update from the Multiculturalism Wars". Multicultural Questions. doi
  12. (2000). Contemporary political sociology: globalization, politics, and power. doi
  13. (1996). Contesting culture discourses of identity in multi-ethnic London. London, doi
  14. (2008). Contextual religious education and the actuality of religions." doi
  15. (2008). Contextual Religious Education and the Interpretive Approach." doi
  16. (2006). Cosmopolitanism : ethics in a world of strangers. doi
  17. (2002). Critical Realism and Semiosis." doi
  18. (2007). Critical religious education, multiculturalism and the pursuit of truth. doi
  19. (1992). Cultural complexity: studies in the social organization of meaning. doi
  20. (2001). Culture and equality: an egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. doi
  21. (1979). Curriculum Inquiry: the study of curriculum practice. doi
  22. (1998). De nasjonale strateger: Ledelse organisasjon og styring, [The national strategists: leadership, organisation and governance].
  23. (2004). Den felleskulturelle skolen: pedagogisk arbeid med språklig og kulturelt mangfold / The School of Common Culture: Pedagogic work with linguistic and cultural diversity.
  24. (1997). Den norske skoles utvikling [The development of Norwegian school]. Oslo, Ad notam Gyldendal.
  25. (2005). Det nasjonale godhetsregimet : om utviklingshjelp, fredspolitikk og det norske samfunn.
  26. (2002). Det norske sett med nye øyne kritisk analyse av norsk innvandringsdebatt [The Norwegian seen with fresh eyes: Critical analysis of Norwegian immigration debates].
  27. (1999). Development as freedom. doi
  28. (2001). Discourse theory and practice : a reader. doi
  29. (1999). Diskursanalyse som teori og metode [Discourse analysis as theory and method].
  30. (1997). Dislocating cultures : identities, traditions, and ThirdWorld feminism. doi
  31. (2009). Does religion matter to young people in Norwegian schools?". Teenagers' Perspectives on the Role of Religion
  32. (1987). Doing Gender." doi
  33. (2010). Eduation and Religious Diversity: The Interpretive Approach in an International Context.
  34. (2010). Educational pluralism and freedom of religion: recent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights." doi
  35. (2009). Ekstremistan : frykt og håp i det flerkulturelle Norge [Extremistan: Fear and Hope in multicultural Norway].
  36. (2008). Encountering religious pluralism in school and society : a qualitative study of tennage perspectives in Europe.
  37. (2003). Er troen virkelig en skole-sag?"" ["Is faith really an issue for school?"]. Dannelsens Forvandlinger.
  38. (1993). Ethnicity and nationalism : anthropological perspectives. London, Pluto Press. doi
  39. (2004). Ethnicity without groups. doi
  40. (1997). Excitable speech: a politics of the performative. doi
  41. (2008). Feminist Theorizes the political: The political theory of Wendy Brown." doi
  42. (2001). Flerkulturell forståelse.
  43. (2004). Focus Groups". Qualitative Research Practice. doi
  44. (2003). Folkedannelsens forvandlinger [The transformations of popular citizenship education].
  45. (2010). Forthcoming). "Young Peoples' talk about religion and diversity: A qualitative study of Norwegian students aged 13-15." To review: doi
  46. (1991). Fra Godkjenning til Forskning." ["From acceptance to research."]. Retrieved 04.11.2009,
  47. (2005). Fra identitet til forskjell [From identity to difference]. Oslo,
  48. (2009). Frames of war : when is life grievable? doi
  49. (2001). From Lutheran Catechism to World Religions and Humanism: Dilemmas and Middle Ways through the Story of Norwegian Religious Education." doi
  50. (2007). Frp-koden : hemmeligheten bak Fremskrittspartiets suksess [The Progress Party code: The secred behind the success of the Progress Party].
  51. (2007). Globalization / the key concepts. doi
  52. (1992). Globalization social theory and global culture. doi
  53. (2003). Gode formål - gale følger? : kritisk lys på norsk innvandringspolitikk [Good intentions - Bad consequences? A critical light on Norwegian immigration policy]. Oslo, Cappelen akademisk forl.
  54. (2007). Gode intensjoner, problematiske konsekvenser. Undervisning om homofili på ungdomsskolen." ["Good intentions, problematic consequences. Teaching about homosexuality in lower secondary schools in Norway"] Norsk Pedagogisk Tidsskrift
  55. (2007). Grenser for kultur? : perspektiver fra norsk minoritetsforskning.
  56. (2009). Grenser for seksualitet: Norske seksualitetsforståelser i familie og innvandringspolitikk." ["The borders of sexuality. Norwegian conceptions of sexuality in family- and immigration policy"] Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning(4):
  57. (1985). Hegemony & socialist strategy towards a radical democratic politics. doi
  58. (2008). Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian classrooms." Gender and Education doi
  59. (2010). Homotolerance and heterosexuality as Norwegian values." doi
  60. (2010). Human Rights Committee Communication no.
  61. (1994). Hva er nasjonalisme? [What is nationalism?].
  62. (1995). Identitet og dialog: kristendomskunnskap, livssynskunnskap og religionsundervisning [Identity and Dialogue: Knowledge about Christianity and life-views and teaching about religions.]. Norges offentlige utredninger.
  63. (2006). Identity and violence the illusion of destiny. London, Allan Lane. doi
  64. (2009). Integrering: teori og empiri [Integration: theory and empirical work].
  65. (2003). International perspectives on citizenship, education and religious diversity. doi
  66. (1996). Inventing our selves : psychology, power, and personhood. Cambridge ; doi
  67. (1999). Is multiculturalism bad for women? doi
  68. (2005). Islam i Norge.
  69. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. doi
  70. (2008). Kjerner og identiteter i debatten rundt skolens formålsparagraf." ["Cores and identities in the debate about the object clause of Norwegian state school"]
  71. (2009). Kommandohumanismen: en kritisk analyse av Gudmund Hernes' retorikk, sosiale ingeniørkunst og utdanningspolitikk. [Bergen], Universitetet i Bergen. PhD:
  72. (2008). Krevende toleranse: Islam og homoseksualitet." ["Demanding tolerance: Islam and homosexuality"] Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning(2):
  73. (2005). KRL-boka 2005 : kristendoms-, religions- og livssynskunnskap, læreplan for 1.-10. årstrinn, læreplanveiledning og informasjon [The KRL-book 2005: Christianity, religion and life-views. Syllabus for years 1 to 10. Syllabus guide and information.].
  74. (1996). Kulturblanding og nasjonal identitet [Cultural mixing and national identity].
  75. (2006). Kulturforskjeller i praksis : perspektiver på det flerkulturelle Norge [Cultural differences in practice: perspectives on multicultural Norway]. Oslo, Gyldendal akademisk.
  76. (2008). Læreplan i Kristendom-, religion- og livssynskunnskap [Syllabus in Knowledge about Christianity, Religion and life-views.].
  77. (1996). Læreplanverket for den 10-årige grunnskolen [Curriculum for the 10 years of compulsory school.]. Kirke- utdannings- og forskningsdepartementet.
  78. (1986). Linking data. Beverly Hills ; doi
  79. (2006). Liquid fear. Cambridge, doi
  80. (2005). Liquid life. doi
  81. (2000). Liquid modernity. Cambridge, doi
  82. (2007). Liquid times : living in an age of uncertainty. doi
  83. (2003). Media rituals : a critical approach. doi
  84. (2001). Mening, materialitet, makt: en innføring i diskursanalyse [Meaning, Materiality and Power: In introduction to discourse analysis].
  85. (1980). Metaphors we live by. doi
  86. (2007). Misjonsbilder : bidrag til norsk selvforståelse : om bruk av foto og film i tverrkulturell kommunikasjon [Missionary images: a contribution to Norwegian self-understanding.].
  87. (2003). Mistillitens sosiologi : retorikk og reform i Hernes'utdanningspolitikk.
  88. (1997). Modern social theory : key debates and new directions. doi
  89. (1992). Money, morals and manners the culture of the French and American upper-middle class. doi
  90. (2008). More On Culture and Representation." doi
  91. (1974). Mønsterplan for grunnskolen [National Guidelines for compulsory school]. Kirke- og undervisningsdepartementet.
  92. (1987). Mønsterplan for grunnskolen: M87 [National Guidelines for compulsory school]. Kirke- og undervisningsdepartementet. Oslo, Kirke- og undervisningsdepartementet : Aschehoug: 307 s.
  93. (1995). Multicultural citizenship : a liberal theory of minority rights. doi
  94. (1992). Multiculturalism and "The politics of recognition" : an essay with commentary by Amy Gutmann...[et al].
  95. (2008). Multiculturalism and Groups." doi
  96. (2007). Multiculturalism without culture. doi
  97. (2008). Multiculturalism, Multiple Groups and Inequalities." doi
  98. (2007). Multiculturalism: a civic idea. doi
  99. (2008). Nasjonalstaten : velferdsstatens grunnlag [The nation state: Foundation of the welfare state].
  100. (2006). Nationalist politics and everyday ethnicity in a Transylvanian town. doi
  101. (2004). Negotiating Gender: Discourse and Practice among Young Muslims in Norway." Tidsskrift for Kirke, Religion og
  102. (1999). New theories of discourse : Laclau, Mouffe and Zizek. doi
  103. (2009). Nigeriansk prostitusjon på norsk: Feil kvinner på feil sted" ["Nigerian prostitution in Norwegian: Wrong women in the wrong place"].
  104. (2001). Norge - en kritikk begrepsmakt i Europa-debatten [Norway: A critique. The power of concepts in the debate about Europe].
  105. (2006). Norsk religionspedagogisk forskning 1985-2005." ["Norwegian research in religious education 1985-2005"] Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift
  106. (2009). Norske seksualiteter : en innledning [Norwegian sexualitites: an introduction].
  107. (2009). Norske seksualiteter [Norwegian sexualities]. [Oslo], Cappelen akademisk forl.
  108. (2008). Norske verdier: homotoleranse og heteroseksualitet [Norwegian values: Homotolerance and heterosexuality]. doi
  109. (2010). Not thinking ethnicity: a critique of the ethnicity paradigm in an over-ethnicised sociology." doi
  110. (2005). On the political, doi
  111. (2001). Politics in the vernacular : nationalism, multiculturalism and citizenship. doi
  112. (1989). Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship." doi
  113. (2000). Realism and social science. Thousand Oaks, doi
  114. (2000). Reconstructing religious, spiritual, and moral education. London ; doi
  115. (2007). Religion and education in Europe: developments, contexts and debates. doi
  116. (2007). Religion and education in Norway". Religion and Education doi
  117. (2008). Religion, education, dialogue and conflict : positions and perspectives of students in Germany and Norway.
  118. (2001). Religionsdialog på norsk [Religious dialogue in Norwegian].
  119. (2009). Religionspedagogikk som forskningsfag i markedsøkonomiens tidsalder [Pedagogy of religious education as research field in the age of market economics]. NoReFo
  120. (1995). Religionspedagogikkens tverrfaglighet: tilbakeblikk, status og muligheter" ["The inter-disciplinarity of pedagogy of religion: looking back, taking stock and identifying possibilities"]. religiøse og pedagogiske
  121. (1997). Religious education: an interpretive approach. doi
  122. (2006). Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. doi
  123. (2004). Rethinking religious education and plurality : issues in diversity and pedagogy. doi
  124. (2008). Røtter og føtter : identitet i en omskiftelig tid [Roots and feet: identity in changing times].
  125. (2009). Scenes from a classroom: Video analysis of classroom interaction in religious education in Norway". Dialogues and conflict on religion: Studies of classroom interaction in European countries.
  126. (1998). Seeing like a state how certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven, Yale University Press: xiv, doi
  127. (2009). Seige Strukturer: Perspektiver på endring og diskursivt arbeid i norsk religionsdidaktikk." ["Sticky structures: Perspectives on change and discursive work in Norwegian didactics of religion"]
  128. Sexuality in Norwegian Schooling: Constructing and Controlling Ethnic Borders?" Ethnic And Racial doi
  129. (2006). Skulen og statsmaktsspørsmålet : stortingsdebattar 1945-2005 om religion i skulen og om private skular i lys av normativ teori. Bergen, Universitet i Bergen.
  130. (2004). Slik blir nordmenn norske : bruk av nasjonale symbol i eit fleirkulturelt samfunn [How Norwegians become Norwegian: the use of national symbols in a multicultural society].
  131. (2003). Social theory and religion. Cambridge., doi
  132. (1995). Sociological theory: what went wrong? : diagnosis and remedies. doi
  133. (1965). Sørheim doi
  134. (2003). Structure, agency, and the internal conversation. Cambridge, doi
  135. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications." doi
  136. Svendsen (2009a). "Norskhet og seksualitet i skolen" ["Norwegianness and sexuality in school"].
  137. (2009). Svenskhet i marginalen - om en föreställd gemenskap." ["Swedishness on the fringes - a concept of fellowship"] Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning(4):
  138. (2009). Teenagers perspectives on the role of religion in their lives schools and societies : a European quantitative study.
  139. (2007). Terrorist assemblages : homonationalism in queer times. doi
  140. (2007). The "will to empower" : managing the complexity of others. doi
  141. (1995). The art of case study research : perspectives on practice.
  142. (2002). The blank slate. doi
  143. (2007). The changing face of the sacred: future challenges for the sociology of religion
  144. (2005). The Complexities of the Global." doi
  145. (2004). The dignity of working men: morality and the boundaries of race, class, and immigration. doi
  146. (1996). The Epistemology of Qualitative Research".
  147. (2003). The importance of being decent: political discourse on immigration in Norway 1970-2002. [Oslo], Unipax Institutt for samfunnsforskning.
  148. (1997). The invention of women: making an African sense of western gender discourses. Minneapolis ; London, doi
  149. (1999). The multicultural riddle rethinking national, ethnic, and religious identities. doi
  150. (2009). The Norwegian Christianity, Religion and Philosophy subject KRL in Strasbourg." doi
  151. (1997). The Power of Negative Thinking."
  152. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. doi
  153. (2004). The retreat of multiculturalism in the liberal state: theory and policy." doi
  154. (2004). The roots of intense ethnic conflict may not in fact be ethnic: Categories, Communities and path dependence." doi
  155. (1999). The social construction of what? doi
  156. (2001). The use of national symbols in an age of internationalisation.
  157. (2008). To believe or not to believe : young people's perceptions and experiences of religion and religious education in Norway". Encountering Religious Pluralism
  158. (2006). Tolerance and curriculum: Conceptions of tolerance in the multicultural unitary Norwegian compulsory school.
  159. (2000). Two faces of liberalism.
  160. (1993). Typisk norsk : essays om kulturen i Norge [Typically Norwegian: essays about culture in Norway].
  161. (1994). Understanding social theory. doi
  162. (2008). Vedtak til lov om endringar i opplæringslova [Changes to the Education Act].
  163. (2009). Veil : mirror of identity. doi
  164. (2008). Verdier [Values].
  165. (2008). Verdifellesskap eller uenighetsfellesskap?" ["Community of values or community of disagreement?"].
  166. (2009). Vit respektabilitet - Den svenska nationens könade symbolik och unga kvinnors kulturell praktiker." ["White respectability. The Swedish nation's gender symbolism and young women's cultural practices"] Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning(4):
  167. (2004). What's the matter with Kansas? : how conservatives won the heart of America. doi
  168. (2007). Who gets the final word? : gender and negotiations in late modern intrrfaith relationships.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.