<p><strong>Background:</strong> The last comprehensive list of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa was published in 1950. A checklist is important to provide basic information on the extent of the diversity, and to provide the most recent name and classification.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> To present a list of all the lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The list presented is entirely literature based and no attempt has been made to check the report of any taxa or their status by checking the specimens upon which they are based. Firstly, all taxa that were not reported from within the modern boundaries of South Africa were excluded. Next, the <em>Recent literature on lichens </em>database was searched for literature on South African lichens since 1945 and all references checked for new species or new reports, which were then added to the list. These names were then checked against Index Fungorum to ensure that the most current name was being used. Finally, the list was rationalised by excluding all synonyms and dubious infraspecific taxa.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The current list includes 1750 taxa in 260 genera from mainland South Africa, with an additional 100 species and 23 genera from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands, which are treated separately. The replacement name <em>Verrucaria dagolavii</em> Fryday is proposed for <em>Verrucaria umbilicata</em> Øvstedal.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is estimated that, when fully explored, the lichen biota of South Africa will consist of somewhere between 2500 and 3000 taxa.</p
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