Location of Repository

Inter-generational transmission of values regarding weight, shape and appearance

By Julie A. Franklin

Abstract

Many studies have shown that dieting behaviour is popular amongst adolescent girls and there is a growing body of researchw hich suggests that similar patterns of\ud dieting behaviour can be found in girls as young as 9 or 10. Although adolescent dieting is common relatively little is known about the reasons for its emergence. Previous\ud research by Pike and Rodin (1991) found higher levels of weight concern and dissatisfactions with family functioning in mothers of eating disordered adolescent girls.\ud The present study sought to extend this research by examining the maternal influences on weight and dieting concerns at a younger age. The present study investigated\ud dieting motivation and underlying attitudes to weight and shape between mothers and their young adolescent daughters. Twenty girls with high dietary restraint scores were\ud interviewed in addition to twenty girls whose restraint score fell on or below the mean. The mothers of all forty subjects were also interviewed and assessments were \ud completed including dietary restraint,body esteem, self-esteem and body figure preferences and the family enviromnent scale.\ud \ud The high restraint girls reported being more dissatisfied\ud with their body shape and tended to have lower body esteem compared to the comparison group of girls. These differences were not merely a reflection of higher body weight. Although no relationship was found between the mothers' and daughters' restraint scores the mother daughter\ud relationship did appear to be significant in other ways. The high restraint mothers and daughters both had low body esteem scores and desired to lose more weight than the comparison group of girls and mothers. Family functioning appeared to be different between the two groups. The high restraint mothers and daughters perceived the family to be less cohesive, to have lower levels of organisation and place less emphasis on moral and religious issues.\ud \ud This study has reinforced the growing recognition that pre-adolescent girls may hold high dieting motivation. It has also highlighted the significance of the family system and mother-daughter relationship in the development of disordered eating. The parallel with the findings of Pike and Rodin supports the role that mothers may play in\ud the transmission of cultural values regarding weight, shape and appearance. Importantly it also places dieting within a wider context of dissatisfaction with family functioning.\ud Clinicians should be aware of these issues as they have important implications for early intervention and prevention of eating disorders.\u

Publisher: School of Medicine (Leeds)
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:253

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. 1). Fat is a psychological issue.
  2. (1983). A comparison of characteristics in families of patients with anorexia nervosa and normal controls. doi
  3. (1990). A controlled family study of anorexia nervosa: Evidence of familial aggregation and lack of shared transmission with affective disorders. Inteniational Jounial ofEating Disorders, doi
  4. (1991). A retrospective study of pregnancy in bulimia nervosa. doi
  5. (1996). A spoonful ofsugar. Televisionsfood advertising ahned at children: An international coinparative survey. Consumers International:
  6. (1994). A weight on children's minds: Body shape dissatisfactions at 9-years old.
  7. (1990). Abnonnal eating attitudes in London schoolgirls: a prospective epidemiological study: outcome at 12-month follow-up, doi
  8. (1988). Abnormal eating attitudes in London schoolgirls - prospective epidemiological study: Factors associated with abnormal response on screening questionnaires. doi
  9. (1990). Adolescent concerns about weight and eating: A socio-developmental perspective. doi
  10. (1999). Adolescent girls first diets: Triggers and the role of multiple dimensions of self-concept. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, doi
  11. (1994). An observational study of mothers with eating disorders and their infants.
  12. (1989). Anorexia nervosa and food avoidance emotional disorder. doi
  13. (1983). Anorexia nervosa and major affective disorders associated in families: A preliminary report. In
  14. (1988). Anorexia nervosa and motherhood: Reproduction pattern and mothering behaviour of 50 women. doi
  15. (1982). Anorexia nervosa: a multidimensional approach. doi
  16. (1980). Anorexia nervosa: let me be. doi
  17. (1995). Atypical eating disorders. In doi
  18. (1978). Basic Books. doi
  19. (1989). Behavioural and biological correlates of dietary restraint in normal life. doi
  20. (1987). Body figure preferences in male and female adolescents. doi
  21. (1991). Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviours in adolescent girls and boys. doi
  22. (1988). Body image, attitude to weight, and misperceptions of figure preferences of the opposite sex: A comparison of men and women in two gencrations. doi
  23. (1983). Bulimarexia: the bingepurge cycle. doi
  24. (1987). Bulimia nervosa: The impact of pregnancy on mother and baby. doi
  25. (1997). Can dieting cause an eating disorder? doi
  26. (1993). Causes and consequences of dieting and anorexia. doi
  27. (1986). Characteristics of 275 patients with bulimia. doi
  28. (1986). Childhood onset anorexia nervosa. In doi
  29. (1989). Children of mothers with bulimia nervosa. doi
  30. (2001). Children's body image concerns and eating disturbance: A review of the literature. doi
  31. (1987). Children's food preferences: developmental patterns and environmental influences.
  32. (2001). Children's perceptions of body shape: A thinness bias in preadolescent girls and associations with femininity. doi
  33. (1982). Cognitive-behavioural factors in self-control and the treatment of obesity. Unpublished PhD thesis,
  34. (1988). Concepts of self and social convention. Adolescents and parents reasoning about hypothetical and actual family conflicts. In
  35. (1999). Conflict between mothers with eating disorders and their infants during mealtimes. doi
  36. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. doi
  37. (1983). Desirable and undesirable masculine and feminine traits in relation to students' dietary tendencies and body image dissatisfactions. Sex Roles, doi
  38. (1995). Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents. doi
  39. (1991). Development and validation of a scale for measufing self-esteem. doi
  40. (1998). Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents.
  41. (1989). Development of eating problems in adolescent girls: A longitudinal study. doi
  42. (1985). Development of self- Body esteem in overweight youngsters. doi
  43. (1987). Diagnosis and treatment of normal eating. doi
  44. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical nianual ofinental Disorders,
  45. (1989). Dietary restraint in young adolescent girls: a functional analysis. doi
  46. (1985). Dieting and binging: A causal analysis. doi
  47. (1999). Dieting and the family context of eating in young adolescent children. doi
  48. (1998). Dieting awareness and low self worth: Related issues in 8-year-old girls. doi
  49. (1989). Dieting behaviour and eating attitudes in children.
  50. (1990). Dieting concerns of 10-year-old girls and their mothers. doi
  51. (1989). Dissatisfaction with weight and figure in obese girls: Discontent but not depression.
  52. (1993). Does obesity run in families because of genes? An adoption study using silhouettes as a measure of obesity. doi
  53. (1985). Domain specific parenting styles and their impact on the child's development of particular deviance: the example of obesity proneness. doi
  54. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for the assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. doi
  55. (1986). Dysphoric mood and overeating. doi
  56. (1987). Early onset anorexia nervosa. doi
  57. (1989). Eating attitudes, sociodernographic factors and body shape evaluation in adolescence. doi
  58. (1987). Eating behaviour in an adolescent population. doi
  59. (1995). Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook.
  60. (1995). Eating disorders in children. doi
  61. (1973). Eating Disorders, Obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. doi
  62. (1995). Eating habits and attitudes among mothers with feeding disorders. doi
  63. (1994). Eating habits and attitudes of mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive. doi
  64. (1992). Eating in the adult world: The rise of dieting in childhood and adolescence. doi
  65. (1996). Explanations of body image disturbance: A test of maturational status, negative verbal commentary, social comparison and sociocultural hypotheses. doi
  66. (1994). Exploring parents attitudes and behaviours about their children's physical appearance. International journal ofEating Disorders,
  67. (1999). Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls. doi
  68. (1994). Factors associated with eating disorder symptoms in a community sample of 6 th and 7 th grade girls. doi
  69. (1998). Factors associated with weight concerns in adolescent girls. doi
  70. (1992). Failure to thrive: Clinical and developmental aspects. In doi
  71. (1985). Family characteristics of 105 patients with bulimia.
  72. (1985). Family characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia: A review of the research literature. doi
  73. (1999). Fat teasing in young adolescent children: Links with dieting?
  74. (1995). Fat, friendless and unhealthy: 9-year-old children's perception of body shape stereotypes.
  75. (1983). Fear of obesity: a cause of short stature and delayed puberty. doi
  76. (1980). Feeding and sleeping. In
  77. (2000). Five-year-old girls' ideas about dieting are predicted by their mothers' dieting. doi
  78. (1978). For her own goo& 150 years of the experts' advice to women. doi
  79. Handbook of personality theory and research, doi
  80. (1984). How pro nutrient television programming affects children's dietary habits. Developinental Psychopathology,
  81. (1986). Hunger strike: The anorexic's struggle as a metaphor of our age. doi
  82. (2000). Improving the body image, eating attitudes and behaviours of young make and female adolescents: A new educational approach which focuses on self-esteem. doi
  83. (1993). Influences on the eating behaviour of children. Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences, doi
  84. (1985). Intensive outpatient and residential treatment for bulimia. In
  85. (1988). Intrauterine growth and neonatal weight gain in babies of women with anorexia nervosa. doi
  86. Long-ten-n morbidity and mortality of over-weight adolescents.
  87. (1996). Media as a context for the development of disordered eating. In
  88. (1998). Methodological concerns when using silhouettes to measure body image. doi
  89. (1991). Mothers, daughters, and disordered eating. doi
  90. (1997). Mothers, fathers, and daughters: Dieting and disordered eating. Eating Disorders, doi
  91. (2000). Mothers' child-feeding practices influence daughters eating and weight.
  92. National Audit office (2001). Talking about obesity in England. London; the Stationary Office.
  93. (1992). Nutritional influences on mood and cognitive performance: the menstrual cycle, caffeine and dieting. doi
  94. (1989). Observed family interactions among subtypes of eating disorders using structural analysis of social behaviour. doi
  95. (1999). Offspring of women with eating disorders. doi
  96. (2000). Old and new scales for the assessment of body image. Perceptual Motor Skills, doi
  97. (1999). Onset of adolescent eating disorders: Population based cohort study over 3 years. doi
  98. (1990). Osteoporosis: A "new morbidity" for dieting female adolescents.
  99. (1992). Parent-child relationships in nutrient intake: the Framingham Children's Study.
  100. (1993). Parental factors related to bulimia nervosa. Addictive Behaviours, doi
  101. (1991). Parental influences on food selection in young children and its relationship to childhood obesity.
  102. (1999). Parental input and weight concerns among elementary school children. doi
  103. (1994). Parents' and children's adiposity and eating style.
  104. (1994). Perceived parental style and eating psychopathology. European Eating Disorders Review, doi
  105. (1968). Personality and susceptibility to social influence.
  106. (1959). Personality andpersuasibility.
  107. (1986). Pregnancy weight, weight gain, and birth weight. doi
  108. (1996). Prevention implications of peer influences on body image dissatisfaction and disturbed eating in adolescent girls. Eating Disorders: doi
  109. (1999). Problem eating attitudes and behaviour in young children.
  110. (1989). Psychiatric disorder in parents as a risk factor for children. In
  111. (1988). Psychological effects of dieting. doi
  112. (1978). Psychosoniaticfainilies: Anorexia iiervosa in cowext.
  113. (2001). Relating body mass index to figural stimuli: population based normative data for caucasians. doi
  114. (1982). Relation between body esteem and self esteem of obese and normal children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, doi
  115. (1983). Restraint and binge eating; is there a link? In P. Wright (Eds. ), The Psychology of Eating and Eating Disorders. doi
  116. (1986). Restraint, body image and food attitudes in children from 12-18 years. doi
  117. (1994). Review of the evidence for a sociocultural model of bulimia nervosa and an exploration of the mechanisms of action. Clinical Ps chology Review, doi
  118. (1987). Scope and significance of eating disorders. doi
  119. (1992). Selective processing of eating, weight and shape related words in eating disordered patients and dieters. doi
  120. (1988). Self esteem, restraint and eating behaviour. doi
  121. (1990). Self-esteem in girls aged 11 - 12: baseline findings from a planned prospective study of vulnerability to eating disorders. doi
  122. (1993). Self-esteem, parental appraisal and body size in children. doi
  123. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape. doi
  124. (1985). Sex stereotyping in children's' toy advertisements. Sex Roles, doi
  125. (1995). Sexual abuse and eating disorders. In doi
  126. (1985). Society, environment and stress: A study of psychiatric and psychosomatic patients and their families. In doi
  127. (2001). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of a variety of measures of dietary restraint and body concerns in a sample of adolescent girls. doi
  128. (1987). The aetiology and treatment of bulimia nervosa: a biopsychosocial perspective.
  129. (1980). The competent woman: Perspectives on development. doi
  130. (1995). The course and outcome of anorexia nervosa. In doi
  131. (1996). The developmental course of social support: Family and peers.
  132. (1983). The disappearance of childhood. doi
  133. (1979). The Eating Attitudes Test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. doi
  134. (1971). The feeling of being fat and dieting in a school population.
  135. (1989). The gender gap in eating disorders: Why are the eating disorders more common amongst women?, doi
  136. (1998). The mass media and disordered eating: Implications for primary prevention. In: doi
  137. (1983). The psychological significance of pubertal change. Sex differences in perception of self during early adolescence. In doi
  138. (1993). The relationship between mothers' eating restraint and their childrens' attitudes and behaviours. doi
  139. (1981). The significance of bulimia in juvenile anorexia nervosa: Exploration of possible etiological factors. doi
  140. (1988). The spectrum of eating disorders in adolescence. doi
  141. (1994). Toward an empirical basis for primary prevention of eating problems with elementary school children. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, doi
  142. (1986). Toward an understanding of risk factors for bulimia. doi
  143. (1982). Towards a functional analysis of anorexia nervosa an bulimia nervosa. doi
  144. (1983). Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. In S. Kety (Eds. ), The genetics of iieurological andpsychiatric disorders.
  145. (1975). Value of family background and clinical features as predictors of long-term outcome in anorexia nervosa: A four-year follow-up study of 41 patients. doi
  146. (2001). Weight status, parent reaction, and self-concept In five-year-old girls. doi
  147. (1999). What do mothers feed their children and why? doi
  148. (1979). Who is dieting and why?
  149. (1997). Why do adolescent girls watch their weight? An interview study examining sociocultural pressures to be thin. doi
  150. (1985). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.