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The extended family of CD1d-restricted T cells: sifting through a mixed bag of TCRs, antigens and functions

By Elodie eMacho-Fernandez and Manfred eBrigl

Abstract

Natural killer T (NKT) cells comprise a family of specialized T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d. Based on their T cell receptor (TCR) usage and antigen-specificities, CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been divided into two main subsets: type I NKT cells that use a canonical invariant TCR α-chain and recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), and type II NKT cells that use a more diverse αβ TCR repertoire and do not recognize α-GalCer. In addition, α-GalCer-reactive NKT cells that use non-canonical αβ TCRs and CD1d-restricted T cells that use γδ or δ/αβ TCRs have recently been identified, revealing further diversity among CD1d-restricted T cells. Importantly, in addition to their distinct antigen specificities, functional differences are beginning to emerge between the different members of the CD1d-restricted T cell family. In this review, while using type I NKT cells as comparison, we will focus on type II NKT cells and the other non-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell subsets, and discuss our current understanding of the antigens they recognize, the formation of stimulatory CD1d/antigen complexes, the modes of TCR-mediated antigen recognition, and the mechanisms and consequences of their activation that underlie their function in antimicrobial responses, antitumor immunity, and autoimmunity

Topics: Antigen Presentation, Glycosphingolipids, Infection, Inflammation, Phospholipids, Cancer, Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00362
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:24cab469074f48778cabe7c62d4bedc7
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