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Stage-specific role of interferon-gamma in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

By Gabriel eArellano, Payton Amelia Ottum, Lilian eReyes, Paula eBurgos and Rodrigo eNaves

Abstract

The role of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has remained as an enigmatic paradox for more than 30 years. Several studies attribute this cytokine a prominent proinflammatory and pathogenic function in these pathologies. However, accumulating evidence shows that IFN-γ also plays a protective role inducing regulatory cell activity and modulating the effector T cell response. Several innate and adaptive immune cells also develop opposite functions strongly associated with the production of IFN-γ in EAE. Even the suppressive activity of different types of regulatory cells is dependent on IFN-γ. Interestingly, recent data supports a stage-specific participation of IFN-γ in EAE providing a plausible explanation for previous conflicting results. In this review, we will summarize and discuss such literature, emphasizing the protective role of IFN-γ on immune cells. These findings are fundamental to understand the complex role of IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of these diseases and can provide basis for potential stage-specific therapy for MS targeting IFN-γ-signaling or IFN-γ-producing immune cells

Topics: Adaptive Immunity, Multiple Sclerosis, innate immunity, Neuroinflammation, Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Interferon-γ, Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00492
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:f79b2c0570154cfd8dedb35e3b3c3af2
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