Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Teaching and learning through interaction : a case study of Japanese children learning English as a foreign language

By Yumi Ohashi

Abstract

This thesis presents an analysis of interaction within an EFL classroom in a Japanese primary school. Adopting a sociocultural perspective of learning, the study explores the applicability of "guided participation" (Rogoff, 1990) as an approach to understanding the process of classroom\ud language learning. It is a concept in which learning is Viewed as increased "participation" ("Participation metaphor" Sfard, 1998) in the activities of a community, achieved by mediation through language use and structuring.\ud \ud Drawing on sociocultural theory, a method of discourse analysis was developed to reveal the educational processes involved in discourse. Data obtained from eight lessons was transcribed and coded for discourse actions, actions whose pedagogic functions are realised through the mediational use of language. Seven discourse patterns emerged, among them capturing the major characteristics of participation. One pattern in particular involving teacher assistance\ud emerges as having the potential to promote a transformation of pupil language use and participation.\ud \ud Discourse patterns were further examined to identify how opportunities / "affordances" (Gibson,1979) for participation emerge. Drawing on an ecological perspective, a method of analysis for "affordances" in the EFL classroom was developed. Six dimensions of affordances were\ud identified and an examination of the interplay of these dimensions in each discourse pattern carried out. As a result, four types of affordance were identified, two of which, "Strong affordance" and "Contingent affordance", emerge as the most effective for enhancing pupil\ud participation. Analysis further revealed (1) the existence of multiple affordances within a task or an activity, (2) the importance of the teacher's role in the facilitation of affordances, (3) the importance of the active agency of a learner and (4) the complex interplay between learner and\ud environment, the ecology of the classroom. The research also analysed a problematic class to identify causes of negative participation.\ud \ud The thesis concludes that the process of "guided participation" is observable in classroom discourse as pupils make use of affordances available in the environment,, suggesting that a sociocultural method of discourse analysis along with the concept of affordances and an ecological method of analysis for affordances is a valuable means of illummating the complex, social and interactional nature of language learning in the primary EFL classroom. Finally, the findings of the study imply that a greater focus by teachers upon "guided participation" has the potential to enhance the learning process in the formal world of the primary classroom

Publisher: School of Education (Leeds)
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:339

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1974). A simple systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. doi
  2. (1985). a). Non-native/Non-native conversations: A model for negotiation of meaning. doi
  3. (1985). a). Task variation and nonnative / nonnative negotiation of meaning. doi
  4. (1981). a). The genesis of higher mental functions. In doi
  5. (1986). Adult assistance of children's leaming. In
  6. (2002). An ecological-semiotic perspective on language and linguistics. In doi
  7. (1997). Analysing casual conversation.
  8. (1997). Analysing educational discourse: An exploratory study of teacher response and support to pupils' learning. doi
  9. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: cognitive development in social context. doi
  10. (1987). Argumentation and cognition. doi
  11. (1979). Aspects of the properties of formulations in natural conversations: some instances analyzed. doi
  12. (1965). Aspects of the theory ofsyntax.
  13. (1985). b). Miscommunication in native /non-native conversation. doi
  14. (1985). b). Variation in native speaker speech modification to nonnative speakers. doi
  15. (1988). Becoming a Skilled Reader.
  16. (2000). British Educational Research Association ethical guidelines. http: //www.
  17. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. doi
  18. (1988). Classroom discourse. - the language of teaching and learning. doi
  19. (1998). Cogn'tion, Perception and Language. In
  20. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In
  21. (1987). Common knowledge: the development of understanding in the classroom.
  22. (1998). Communities ofpractice. - learning, meaning, and identity. doi
  23. (1979). Consciousness as a problem of the psychology of behaviour. doi
  24. (1998). Context, community, and authentic language. doi
  25. (2004). Creativity, metaphor and language learning. Talk given in Pulawy,
  26. (1994). Describing language doi
  27. (1981). Discourse as an interactional achievement: some uses of 'Uhhuh'and other things that come between sentences.
  28. (1992). Do you see what we see? the referential and intertextual nature of classroom life. Journal of classroom interaction.
  29. (1998). Emergent Grammar. In doi
  30. (1996). Encountering the World: Towards an Ecological Psychology. doi
  31. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics. - An ethnographic approach. doi
  32. (2000). From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In
  33. (1961). Functions of speech: The evolutionary approach.
  34. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition. doi
  35. (1993). Guided participation in cultural activity bY toddlers and caregivers. doi
  36. (2005). http: //conferences. ialt. orĂ½-Y/2005/index/-plenM Accessed
  37. (2000). Identity and language learning: gender, ethnicity and educational change. doi
  38. (2003). Imagined communities and educational possibilities: doi
  39. (1985). Input and interaction in the communicatiVe languae classroom: a comparison of teacher-ftonted and group activities.
  40. (1997). Input, Interaction and the Second Language Learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, doi
  41. (1993). Institutional and Social Context of Educational Practice and Refo=. In
  42. (1996). Interaction in the language curriculum .- awareness, autonomy, and authenticity. doi
  43. (1973). Introducing applied linguistics. doi
  44. (2002). Language acquisition and language use from a chaos/complexity theory perspective. In doi
  45. (1992). Language and discrimination .-a study of communication in multi- ethnic worAplaces.
  46. (1968). Language and mind. doi
  47. (1982). Language two. doi
  48. (2003). Metaphor in educational discourse. doi
  49. (1998). Mind as action. doi
  50. (1983). Native speaker/ nonnative speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. doi
  51. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualised in developmental perspective: A bioecological model.
  52. (1994). Neo-Vygotskian theory and classroom education. In
  53. (2001). No-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom.
  54. (1994). Observing and recording talk in educational settings. In
  55. (1995). Observing sociocultural activity on three planes: participatory appropriation, guided participation, and apprenticeship. In doi
  56. (1997). On claims that answers the wrong question. doi
  57. (1972). On communicative competence. In
  58. (1997). On Discourse, Communication, and (Some) Fundamental concepts in doi
  59. (1983). On the variability of interlanguage systems. doi
  60. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, doi
  61. (1973). Opening up closings. doi
  62. (1995). Philosophical writings ofPeirce.
  63. (1997). Psychologyfor language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge ; New York: doi
  64. (1993). Real world research .-a resourcefor social scientists and practitionerresearchers.
  65. (1995). Redefining student learning. - roots of educational change.
  66. (1997). Repetition in the collaborative discourse of L2 learners-. a Vygotskian perspective.
  67. (2000). Researching children's perspectives. Buckingham: doi
  68. (1988). Rousing minds to life. - teaching, learning, and schooling I ersity Press. in social con text. Cambn dge Cambridgeshire ; New York: Cambridge Uni v 'I 288 Tonkal,
  69. (1994). Same task, different activities: Analysis of a SLA task from an activity theory perspective. In
  70. (1987). Second language acquisition, social interaction in the classroom. doi
  71. (1983). Second language leaming: an information-processing perspective. doi
  72. (1991). Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge [England] ; New York: doi
  73. (1998). SLA Property: No Trespassing! doi
  74. (2000). Sociocultural Contributions to Understanding the Foreign and Second Language Classroom. In
  75. (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. doi
  76. (1985). Sources of variability in interlanguage. Applied Linguistics. doi
  77. (1987). Stylistic variability and not speaking "nonnal" English: some postLabovian approaches and their implications for the study of interlanguage'.
  78. (1993). Taking explanation seriously; or, let a couple of flowers bloom. doi
  79. (2003). Teaching language . -from grammar to grammaring.
  80. (1979). The Ecolgical Approach to Visual Perception.
  81. (2004). The Ecology of Language Learning. Paper presented at the UC Language Consortium Conference on Theoretical and Pedagogical Perspectives.
  82. (1962). The ethnography of speaking. doi
  83. (1995). The guided construction of knowledge .- talk amongst teachers and learners.
  84. (1988). The language code: Issues in word recognition. In doi
  85. (1985). The role of group work in classroom second language acquisition. doi
  86. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition i. In doi
  87. (1976). The role of tutormg in problem solVing.
  88. (1985). The zone of proximal development: where culture and cognition create each other. In
  89. (1987). Theories of second-language learning. doi
  90. (1986). Thought and language. doi
  91. (1975). Towards an analysis of discourse .- the English used by teachers andpupils. London:
  92. (1980). Towards an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly,
  93. (1995). Understanding communication in second language classrooms. doi
  94. (2000). Varieties of conversational experience: Looking for learning opportunities.
  95. (2003). Visualising the dynamics of learner interaction: Casesfrom a Norwegian language classroom., Unpublished PhD thesis.
  96. (1992). Voices: the work of the National Oracy Project (pp.
  97. (1994). Vygotskian approaches to second language research. doi
  98. (1985). Vygotsky and the socialformation of mind.
  99. (1985). Vygotsky's ideas about unlts for the analysIs of mind. In I Wertsch Culture, Communication and Cognition. Vygotskian Perspective. Cambndge:
  100. (1990). Vygotsky'spsychology. - a biography of ideas.
  101. (2000). Words and minds : how we use language to think together. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.