Location of Repository

A corpus-based investigation of the phraseology in various genres of written English with applications to the teaching of English for academic purposes

By John Anthony McKenny


This thesis describes an investigation into the various kinds of fixed expressions or prefabricated language which occur in certain genres of written academic English. A\ud basic premise is that language users, when they write, remember phrases as much as, or more than, they compose them. Although the grammar of a language licenses the\ud use of a variety of forms to express any proposition only a small subset of these grammatically possible locutions are considered natural and native-like. It is demonstrated that prefabs, my preferred term for prefabricated language, serve many functions in written academic discourse. Their use helps the writer to generate idiomatic text which meets the expectations of the reader and shows clearly the\ud writer's discourse community. Prefabs also enable the configuration of writer's stance more explicitly. At the same time, thanks to prefabs the reader is better able to\ud navigate within the text.\ud \ud The main focus of the investigation is the use by non-native speakers of English of prefabs in writing. Corpus linguistics is presented as the most appropriate\ud methodology for this investigation. Two main kinds of corpora are constructed: an experimental corpus of argumentative essays produced by Portuguese `apprentice'\ud English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writers and three control corpora of texts of comparable length, by different categories of native speakers of English. The kinds\ud and frequencies of prefabs in the corpora are measured and tabulated. Finally, recommendations are made on how to use the findings of the research to improve EAP teaching and learning programmes

Publisher: School of English (Leeds)
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:346

Suggested articles



  1. [1666] 1966. De Arte Combinatoria: On the Art of Combination.
  2. (1198). 1. Aspects of article introductions.
  3. (2003). A bird's eye view of learner corpus research. In doi
  4. A clause relational approach to English texts: a study of some predictive lexical items in written discourse. doi
  5. (1998). A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. doi
  6. (1989). A common ground: the essay in the Academy. doi
  7. (1985). A Communicative Grammar of English. Cambridge: doi
  8. (1989). A comparison of Portuguese and English newspaper editorials. Paper presented at the 23`' Annual TESOL Convention,
  9. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. doi
  10. (1995). A computer-assisted study of collocations in academic prose, with special reference to grammatical structure and stylistic value. Unpublished Ph.
  11. (1985). A Defence of Cliches. doi
  12. (1940). A Dictionary of Cliches. doi
  13. (1994). A Dictionary of English Collocations. doi
  14. (2002). A Dictionary of Stylistics. Second edition.
  15. (1953). A General Service List of English Words: with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology.
  16. (1988). A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. doi
  17. (1991). A genre description of the argumentative essay. doi
  18. (1948). A Learner's Dictionary of Current English. doi
  19. (1980). A lexical phrase grammar for ESL. doi
  20. (1988). A lexical syllabus for language learning. In
  21. (1991). A mint of phrases. In
  22. (1991). A new tool for discourse analysis: the Vocabulary-Management Profile. doi
  23. (1959). A review of doi
  24. (1938). A Semantic Count of English Words.
  25. (1992). Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. doi
  26. (1996). Accidental Empires.
  27. (1993). Accurate methods for the statistics of surprise and coincidence.
  28. (1995). Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. doi
  29. (2000). Adverbial marking of stance in speech and writing.
  30. (1999). Agile" and "Uptight" Genres: The Corpus-based Approach to Language Change in Progress. doi
  31. (1933). Aids to conversational skill.
  32. (2003). Amplifier collocations in the British National Corpus: implications for English language teaching. doi
  33. (1999). An alternative view of stored linguistic knowledge and its relevance to text composition.
  34. (1998). An automated approach to the phrasicon of EFL learners.
  35. (1993). An educational, or process, approach to the teaching of professional genres. doi
  36. (1998). An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics. doi
  37. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Second Edition.
  38. (1989). An outline of the value of genre analysis in LSP work.
  39. (1993). Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. doi
  40. (1990). as Theory of Language: The Representational Function of Language (Foundations of Semiotics) (Philadelphia/Amsterdam: doi
  41. (1987). Aspects of English collocations. doi
  42. (1975). Aspects of language. Second edition.
  43. (1984). Aspects of Text Structure: an Investigation of the Lexical Organization of Text. doi
  44. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. doi
  45. (1987). Aspects of transferability in second language acquisition. Unpublished Ph.
  46. (1998). Automatic profiling of learner texts.
  47. (2005). BNC Baby Corpus.
  48. (1996). Borrowing others' words: text, ownership, memory, and plagiarism. doi
  49. (1996). CALL Design based on analysis of a learner's corpus. Paper delivered at AILA '96,11th World Congress of Applied Linguistics,
  50. (1981). Cambridge English Lexicon. Cambridge:
  51. (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English with CD ROM: A Comprehensive Guide. Cambridge: doi
  52. (1966). Cartesian Linguistics. doi
  53. Clause relations as information structure: two basic text structures in English.
  54. (2001). Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca. doi
  55. (1995). Collocational and genre analysis: the phraseology of grammatical items in cancer research abstracts and articles. Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik.
  56. (2000). Collocational evidence from the British National Corpus.
  57. (1991). Collocational frameworks in English.
  58. (1998). Collocations and Lexical Functions. doi
  59. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Cambridge:
  60. (1966). Communication and Argument: Elements of Applied Semantics.
  61. (2000). Comparing corpora using frequency profiling. doi
  62. (1998). Compositional and non-compositional aspects of written and spoken texts.
  63. (1967). Computational Analysis of Present Day English. doi
  64. (1998). Computer Corpus Lexicography. doi
  65. (1998). Computer tools for the analysis of learner corpora.
  66. (1990). Concordances in the Language Classroom.
  67. (1998). Concordancing and the teaching of the vocabulary of academic English. doi
  68. (2005). Content analysis of dogmatism compared with corpus analysis of epistemic stance in student essays. doi
  69. (1985). Content analysis: an alternative approach to open and closed minds.
  70. (1999). Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-cultural Aspects of Second-language Writing. Cambridge: doi
  71. (2003). Converationalization in discourse: stylistic changes in editorials of the Times between 1950 and 2000. In
  72. (2002). Corpora in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: doi
  73. (1997). Corpora: the real thing?
  74. (1995). Corpus evidence for norms of lexical collocation.
  75. (2001). Corpus Linguistics at Work. doi
  76. (1998). Corpus linguistics: Exploring language structure and use. Cambridge: doi
  77. (1984). Corpus Linguistics. doi
  78. (1996). Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: doi
  79. (1992). Corpus linguistics" or "Computer-aided armchair linguistics". doi
  80. (1995). Corpus typology- a framework for classification.
  81. (1994). Corpus-based approaches to issues in applied linguistics. doi
  82. (1991). Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. doi
  83. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. doi
  84. (2006). Critical language study and translation: the case of academic discourse. doi
  85. (1991). Cultural expectations and sociopragmatic failure in academic writing.
  86. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education. doi
  87. (1999). Darstellung und Erleben der Wende in Massenmedien. Inhaltsanalytische Untersuchungen am Wendekorpus - zehn Jahre danach/Representation and experience of the "Wende" in mass media. Content analytical inquiries - ten years later.
  88. (2003). Data-driven learning and vocabulary: investigating the use of concordances with advanced learners of
  89. de [1915] 1983. Course in General Linguistics. doi
  90. (2004). de 1580. The Complete Essays. Translated and edited with an introduction and notes
  91. (1980). Desire in Language: a Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. Translated by T. doi
  92. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In
  93. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language. A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In
  94. (2002). Dictionary for Advanced Learners doi
  95. Dictionary. 1989.2nd ed / prepared by
  96. (2000). Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing. doi
  97. (1983). Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: doi
  98. (2000). Discourse community, legitimate peripheral participation, and the nonnativeEnglish-speaking scholar. doi
  99. (1987). Discourse Markers. Cambridge: doi
  100. (1988). Down the Garden Path: inducing and correcting overgeneralization errors in the foreign language classroom. doi
  101. (1996). EAGLES. Preliminary recommendations on Corpus Typology [online]. Available from: http: //www.
  102. (1990). English as cultural action.
  103. (1991). English Corpus Linguistics. doi
  104. (2002). English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus. doi
  105. (1990). English Grammar Word by Word. doi
  106. (1974). English lexical collocations.
  107. (1998). Enhancing a writing textbook: a national perspective.
  108. (1998). Exploiting Ll and interlanguage corpora in the design of an electronic language learning and production environment.
  109. (1979). Explorations in Applied Linguistics. doi
  110. (1987). Farewell to Reason.
  111. (1989). Feedback for language transfer errors: the garden path technique. doi
  112. (1998). Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English. doi
  113. (2002). Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: doi
  114. (2003). Formulaic language in a Japanese-English bilingual child: a practical approach to data analysis.
  115. (2002). Formulaic language in English academic writing: a corpus-based study of the formal and functional variation of a lexical phrase in different academic disciplines. In doi
  116. (2004). Formulaic sequences in action: An introduction. doi
  117. (2004). Formulaic Sequences. doi
  118. (1987). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar Vol 1: Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford, CA : doi
  119. (1997). From concordance to text structure: new uses for computer corpora.
  120. (1986). Genre analysis: an investigation of the introduction and discussion section sections
  121. (1990). Genre Analysis. Cambridge: doi
  122. (1996). Genre, text type and the language learning classroom. doi
  123. (1999). Genres, keywords, teaching: towards a pedagogic account of the language of project proposals.
  124. (1911). Handbook of American Indian Languages. doi
  125. (1972). Hedges: a study in meaning criteria and the logic of fuzzy concepts. Papers from the Eighth Regional Meeting, doi
  126. (2003). How students argue scientific claims: A rhetorical-semantic analysis. doi
  127. (1962). How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: doi
  128. (2001). I think as a marker of discourse style in argumentative Swedish student writing. In
  129. (1972). Idiom Structure in English. The Hague/Paris: doi
  130. (1989). Idiomaticity as an indicator of second language proficiency. In doi
  131. (1996). Idioms and Idiomaticity. doi
  132. (1977). Idioms have relations.
  133. (2004). If you look at...: lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks. doi
  134. (1992). Inaugural speech at the 82 °d Nobel Symposium.
  135. (1979). Individual differences in second language acquisition.
  136. (1956). Information and memory. doi
  137. (1967). Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Communication. doi
  138. (1959). Interview published in The New York Times [online]. Available from: http: //partners. nytimes.
  139. (1998). Introducing Applied Linguistics: 25 Years on.
  140. (1993). Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer? The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies.
  141. (1989). Knowledge of language and ability for use. doi
  142. (1956). L'elaboration du Francais Elementaire. doi
  143. (2004). Language and Creativity: The Art of Common Talk. doi
  144. (1994). Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language Teaching. doi
  145. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic. doi
  146. (1995). Language Dictionary doi
  147. (1967). Language identification in the limit. doi
  148. (1989). Language, Context and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social-semiotic Perspective. Second Edition. doi
  149. (1984). Language, register and genre.
  150. (2004). Language: An Ecological Approach.
  151. (2001). Large corpora, small corpora and the learning of "language". doi
  152. (1984). Learning and essay writing. doi
  153. (2003). Learning Idiomaticity: A corpus-based study of idiomatic expressions in learners' written production.
  154. (2004). Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing: Examples from history and biology. doi
  155. (2003). Lexical bundles in speech and writing: an initial taxonomy.
  156. (1971). Lexical density and register differentiation.
  157. (1992). Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. doi
  158. (1993). Lexical teddy bears and advanced learners: a study into the way Norwegian students cope with English vocabulary. doi
  159. (1986). Lexicographic Description of English. doi
  160. (1988). Limitations of Language London:
  161. (1995). Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. doi
  162. (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. doi
  163. Magna Didactica. Translated by
  164. (2003). Matrix: a statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison. Unpublished Ph.
  165. (1999). Medienpsychologie: Zeitschrift fuer Individual und Massenkommunikation,
  166. (1951). Methods in Structural Linguistics. doi
  167. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity. doi
  168. (1996). Notes from video-conferencing session on lexicology, lexicography and computational linguistics for the Department of English Language and Literature,
  169. (2000). Notes on the role of metapragmatic awareness in language use. doi
  170. (1976). Notional Syllabuses. doi
  171. (1983). Now you see it, now you don't. doi
  172. (1933). On Learning to Speak a Foreign Language.
  173. (1978). On the organization of semantic information in the lexicon. In
  174. (1983). On the Surface of Discourse. London: George Allen and Unwin. doi
  175. (1981). On the use of the passive in two astrophysics journal papers. doi
  176. Orbis sensualium pictus. doi
  177. (1991). Out of the woods: emerging traditions in the teaching of writing. doi
  178. (1998). Overstatement in advanced learners' writing: stylistic aspects of adjective intensification.
  179. (1957). Papers in Linguistics. London: doi
  180. (2000). Pattern Grammar. doi
  181. (1998). Patterns and Meanings: Using Corpora for English Language Research and Teaching. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi
  182. (1990). Patterns of collocability.
  183. (2001). Patterns of Text. doi
  184. (2003). Pedagogy and local learner corpora: working with learner-driven data. doi
  185. (1997). Perspective, subjectivity, and modality from a cognitive linguistic point of view. In doi
  186. (1998). Perspectives on Fixedness: Applied and Theoretical.
  187. (2000). Persuasive rhetoric in linguistics: a stylistic study of some features of the language of Noam Chomsky. In
  188. (1998). Phraseology and second language proficiency. doi
  189. (1996). Phraseology: a select bibliography. doi
  190. (1998). Plenary: hocus pocus and graven images.
  191. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language use. Cambridge: doi
  192. (1998). Prefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing: collocations and formulas.
  193. (1992). Preferred ways of putting things with implications for language teaching. doi
  194. (1969). Problems in the analysis of idioms.
  195. (1929). Problems ofDostoyevsky s Poetics. Translated by
  196. (1985). Process and text: two aspects of semiosis.
  197. (2000). Procrustes' recipe: hedging and positivism. doi
  198. (2003). Reading Collocations: An Introduction.
  199. (1993). Recurrent verb-complement constructions in the London-Lund Corpus. In
  200. (1988). Regularity and idiomaticity in grammatical constructions. doi
  201. (1993). Representativeness in corpus design. doi
  202. (1987). Reproductive furniture and distinguished professors.
  203. (1999). Resources for attitudinal meaning: evaluative orientations in text semantics. doi
  204. (1993). Retrieving collocations from text:
  205. (1984). Second language production: six hypotheses.
  206. (1994). Second language vocabulary learning: the role of implicit processes.
  207. (2003). Seeing the wood and the trees: reconciling findings from discourse and lexical analysis. Paper at Corpus Linguistics
  208. (1998). Seminar: Who do the British think they are? Room 2B 13,2nd Basement,
  209. (1990). Shoptalk: Learning to Write with Writers.
  210. (2001). Size isn't everything: Spoken English, Corpus and the Classroom. doi
  211. (1988). Some current trends in vocabulary teaching.
  212. (1987). Some observations from the perspective of the rare cognitive comparison theory of language acquisition.
  213. (1984). Some thoughts on collocational distinctiveness.
  214. (1969). Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: doi
  215. (1989). Spoken and Written Language. doi
  216. (1934). Sprachtheorie: Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache.
  217. (1988). Stable and creative aspects of vocabulary use.
  218. (2005). Stance and spin in academic writing. In
  219. (1985). State of the art on input in second language acquisition.
  220. (2004). Student papers across the curriculum: designing and developing a corpus of British student writing. doi
  221. (1957). Syntactic Structures. doi
  222. (1998). Tag sequences in learner corpora: a key to interlanguage grammar and discourse.
  223. (1986). Talking about Text. doi
  224. (2002). Teaching and Researching Writing. London: Pearson Education Hymes,
  225. (1982). Teaching Vocabulary. doi
  226. (1996). Text and Corpus Analysis. doi
  227. (1993). Text and technology. doi
  228. (1997). The Academic Wordlist. Available from Paul Nation's website: www. vuw. ae. nz/lals/staff/ paul-nation/vocrefs/vocrefs-I 5. aspx Last accessed on 25
  229. (1997). The Architecture of the Language Faculty. doi
  230. (1993). The automatic content analysis of spoken discourse: a report on work in progress.
  231. (1986). The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English: A Guide to Word Combinations. doi
  232. (2000). The Blind Watchmaker. [New doi
  233. (1999). The British National Spoken Corpus thing and that sort of thing: the interesting thing about `thing'. doi
  234. (1989). The collocational dictionary and the advanced learner. doi
  235. (1982). The Computation of Literary Style: An Introduction to Statistics for Students of Literature and Humanities. doi
  236. (1998). The computer learner corpus: a versatile new source of data for SLA research.
  237. (1998). The corpus of the future and the future of the corpus. Talk at Exeter, special conference on `New trends in reference science'
  238. (1992). The corpus revolution. doi
  239. (1962). The Diversity of Meaning. Oxford:
  240. (1973). The English Word. Moscow: Vyssaj Skola.
  241. (1988). The functions of collocation in dictionaries.
  242. (2000). The functions of I think in political discourse.
  243. (1988). The grading of idiomaticity as a presupposition for a taxonomy of idioms. doi
  244. (1995). The identification and selection of collocations in technical dictionaries.
  245. (2000). The idiom principle and the open choice principle. doi
  246. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications, doi
  247. (1993). The Lexical Approach. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.
  248. (1990). The Lexical Syllabus: A New Approach to Language Learning. London: Harper Collins. 242
  249. (1993). The Linguistic Wars. doi
  250. (1991). The Linguistics Encyclopedia. doi
  251. (1982). The myth of orality and literacy. doi
  252. (1960). The Open and Closed Mind: Investigations Into the Nature of Belief Systems and Personality Systems. doi
  253. (1975). The phrasal lexicon. doi
  254. (1989). The Schoolmaster.
  255. (1917). The Scientific Study and Teaching of Language. London: Harrap. Republished by
  256. (1960). The Singer of Tales. Cambridge: doi
  257. (1990). The structuring of pedagogic discourse. doi
  258. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. doi
  259. (1987). The Teaching of English from the Sixteenth Century to 1870. Cambridge: doi
  260. (1980). The Threshold Level of English.
  261. (1975). The Threshold Level. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  262. (1983). The Units of Language Acquisition. Cambridge: doi
  263. (1998). The use of adverbial connectors in advanced Swedish learners' written English.
  264. (1998). The uses of reality: a reply to Ronald Carter. doi
  265. (1996). Theory and Practice of Writing: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. doi
  266. (1986). Towards a validated analysis of scientific text structure. doi
  267. (1975). Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English Used by Teachers and Pupils. doi
  268. (1996). Transgressing the boundaries: toward a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity. doi
  269. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: nativelike selection and nativelike fluency.
  270. (1979). Un dictionnaire des collocations est-il possible?
  271. (1998). Using data in the classroom.
  272. (1994). Vague Language. doi
  273. (1996). Vantage Level. Strasbourg : Council for Cultural Cooperation.
  274. (1988). Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: doi
  275. (1957). Verbal Behavior. doi
  276. (1980). Vocabulary acquisition: a neglected aspect of language learning. doi
  277. (1999). Vocabulary and Language Teaching. doi
  278. (1998). Vocabulary frequencies in advanced learner English: a cross-linguistic approach.
  279. (2000). Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge: doi
  280. (1990). Vocabulary. doi
  281. (1977). Waystage English.
  282. (1993). What are essays for? doi
  283. (1982). Word Frequencies in British and American English. Bergen: The Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities.
  284. (1985). Word frequency and text type: some observations based on the LOB corpus of British texts. doi
  285. (2005). Word frequency lists and recurrent phrases: new interpretations. Lecture given at
  286. (2002). Words and Phrases: Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics. doi
  287. (1987). Words in the Mind. doi
  288. (1999). Wordsmith Tools, Version 3.
  289. (1998). Writer/reader visibility in EFL written discourse.
  290. (1998). Writing and Identity: The Discoursal Construction of Identity in Academic Writing. doi
  291. (1996). Writing assessment and corpus linguistics. Paper presented at the Applications of Corpus Linguistics Seminar, doi
  292. (1998). Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process. Second edition.
  293. (2004). Zoom.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.