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Biological Redundancy of Endogenous GPCR Ligands in the Gut and the Potential for Endogenous Functional Selectivity

By Georgina eThompson, Meritxell eCanals and Daniel Philip Poole and Daniel Philip Poole

Abstract

This review focuses on the existence and function of multiple endogenous agonists of the somatostatin and opioid receptors with an emphasis on their expression in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These agonists generally arise from the proteolytic cleavage of prepropeptides during peptide maturation or from degradation of peptides by extracellular or intracellular endopeptidases. In other examples, endogenous peptide agonists for the same G protein-coupled receptors can be products of distinct genes but contain high sequence homology. This apparent biological redundancy has recently been challenged by the realization that different ligands may engender distinct receptor conformations linked to different intracellular signaling profiles and, as such the existence of distinct ligands may underlie mechanisms to finely tune physiological responses. We propose that further characterization of signaling pathways activated by these endogenous ligands will provide invaluable insight into the mechanisms governing biased agonism. Moreover, these ligands may prove useful in the design of novel therapeutic tools to target distinct signaling pathways, thereby favoring desirable effects and limiting detrimental on-target effects. Finally we will discuss the limitations of this area of research and we will highlight the difficulties that need to be addressed when examining endogenous bias in tissues and in animals

Topics: Enteric Nervous System, Somatostatin, opioid, Opioid Receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, biased agonism, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, RM1-950
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Year: 2014
DOI identifier: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00262
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:72ccadec4d804807ab2a5ef4eff3f4ec
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