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Nucleoside transporter proteins as biomarkers of drug responsiveness and drug targets

By Marçal ePastor-Anglada, Marçal ePastor-Anglada and Sandra ePérez-Torras and Sandra ePérez-Torras


Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are currently used in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoproliferative diseases, viral infections such as hepatitis and AIDS, and some inflammatory diseases such as Crohn. Two gene families are implicated in the uptake of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs into cells, SCL28 and SLC29. The former encodes hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3 proteins. They translocate nucleosides in a Na+ coupled manner with high affinity and some substrate selectivity, being hCNT1 and hCNT2 pyrimidine- and purine-preferring respectively, and hCNT3 a broad selectivity transporter. SLC29 genes encode four members, being hENT1 and hENT2 the only two which are unequivocally implicated in the translocation of nucleosides and nucleobases (the latter mostly via hENT2) at the cell plasma membrane. Some nucleoside-derived drugs can also interact with and be translocated by members of the SLC22 gene family, particularly hOCT and hOAT proteins. Inter-individual differences in transporter function and perhaps, more importantly, altered expression associated with the disease itself might modulate the transporter profile of target cells, thereby determining drug bioavailability and action. Drug transporter pharmacology has been periodically reviewed. Thus, with this contribution we aim at providing a state-of-the-art overview of the clinical evidence generated so far supporting the concept that these membrane proteins can indeed be biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and/or prognosis. Last but not least, some of these transporter proteins can also be envisaged as drug targets, as long as they can show transceptor functions, in some cases related to their role as modulators of extracellular adenosine levels, thereby providing a functional link between P1 receptors and transporters

Topics: Cancer, biomarker, viral diseases, ENT1, Nucleoside analog, Nucleoside transporter, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, RM1-950
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00013
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