The Rufous-nosed Mouse Wilfredomys oenax is a rare Sigmodontinae rodent known from scarce records from northern Uruguay and south and southeastern Brazil. This species is underrepresented in scientific collections and is currently classified as threathened, being considered extinct at Curitiba, Paraná, the only confirmed locality of the species at southeastern Brazil. Although specimens from São Paulo were already reported, the presence of this species in this state seems to have passed unnoticed in recent literature. Through detailed morphological analyzes of specimens cited in literature, the present work confirms and discusses the presence of this species in São Paulo state from a specimen collected more than 70 years ago. Recently, by the use of modern sampling methods, other rare Sigmodontinae rodents, such as Abrawayomys ruschii, Phaenomys ferrugineous and Rhagomys rufescens, have been recorded to São Paulo state. However, no specimen of Wilfredomys oenax has been recently reported indicating that this species might be locally extinct. The record mentioned here adds another species to the state of São Paulo mammal diversity and reinforces the urgency of studying Wilfredomys oenax
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