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Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?

By F.S. Tomé, V.C. Cardoso, M.A. Barbieri, A.A.M. da Silva, V.M.F. Simões, C.A. Garcia and H. Bettiol

Abstract

In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition in a cohort of Brazilian schoolchildren from 1987 to 1989. We calculated the body mass index (BMI) of 8- to 10-year-old schoolchildren born in Ribeirão Preto in 1978/79. We considered children with a BMI <5th percentile (P5) to be malnourished, children with P5³BMI<P85 to be thin and normal, and children with BMI ³P85 to be overweight. We evaluated the association of these nutritional disorders with birth factors (infant weight, sex, preterm delivery, number of pregnancies, maternal smoking during pregnancy, marital status, and schooling) and type of school using nominal logistic regression. A total of 2797 schoolchildren were evaluated. There was a significant prevalence of malnutrition (9.5%) and excess weight already tended to increase (15.7%), while 6.4% of the children were obese. Excess weight was more prevalent among children attending private schools (odds ratio, OR = 2.27) and firstborn children (OR = 1.69). Maternal smoking during pregnancy protected against malnutrition (OR = 0.56), while children with lower birth weight were at higher risk for malnutrition (OR = 4.23). We conclude that a nutritional transition was under way while malnutrition was still present, but excess weight and related factors were already emerging

Topics: Child malnutrition, Child obesity, Body mass index, Schoolchildren, Socioeconomic level, Medicine (General), R5-920, Biology (General), QH301-705.5
Publisher: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
DOI identifier: 10.1590/S0100-879X2006005000163
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:83256088120d499f941132e6f70848d3
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