The Niger delta region situated in the southern part of Nigeria covers a territory of about 112,110 km2, which represents about 12 % of the total area of the country.\ud The Niger delta is an oil-rich region, which has led Nigeria to the 12th place among the oil producing countries of the world. The share of crude oil production\ud accounts for 90 % of export revenues and 75% of the total state revenue. However, despite the numerous social and economic achievements of the oil industry, it\ud is considered to be the cause of the unemployment rate growth in the region. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of this article is to evaluate the\ud relationship of the crude oil production and high unemployment rate in the Niger Delta. In the article there applied the method of non-experimental research\ud to enable the proportional reflection, method of cluster random choice for distribution of questionnaires and interviewing method for obtaining direct data and\ud information. The results showed that the ecological damage caused by the oil production has had a negative impact on the fishing and agriculture — the main\ud activities of the region rural population. In other words, the threat of oil spills, gas flaring, pollution and other activities associated with oil production are destroying\ud the environment, which is the main home and source of income for a large number of working-age population. Thus, as a result of the depletion of fertile soils,\ud the crop yield drops or completely disappears, forests vanish together with their resources. Rivers and reservoirs are being polluted resulting in the extinction of\ud fish and river fauna, which, in turn, leads to the fact that fishermen and farmers, whose work is directly dependent on environmental conditions, are affected by\ud unemployment. This causes a widespread poverty, unrest and hostile attitude of among young people, as well as the emergence of other social problems prevailing\ud in the region. Unfortunately, the years of neglecting the problem of multinational oil companies, on the one hand, and the lack of a clear state policy of the national\ud government regarding the problem settlement, on the other hand, only increasingly aggravate the problem
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