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Investigation of schoolchildren's understanding of the process of dissolving with special reference to the conservation of matter and the development of atomistic ideas.

By Brian Holding

Abstract

The study is set in a constructivist framework within which\ud children are regarded as actively engaged in constructing and restructuring their knowledge of the 'physical' world. The overall purpose of the research is to describe the development of children's conceptions about the nature of matter as disclosed by their ideas concerning the dissolving process.\ud \ud Information about children's ideas concerning various aspects of the dissolving process was obtained through individual interviews with a representative sample of pupils between the ages of seven and seventeen selected from school year groups 3,5,7,10 and 12. In addition a survey was conducted in which a further representative\ud sample of 588 pupils were given group administered tasks relating to the same phenomena. In both the interview and the survey, pupils were required to make predictions, observations and explanations which were subsequently categorised to reflect recurrent features in their\ud responses. These categories were coded and entered on a computer for further analysis.\ud \ud Aspects of children's conceptions as they related to atomistic ideas and to the conservation of matter, weight and volume formed the focus of the research. Most of the pupils in all five year-group conserved substance but a considerable number did not conserve its weight/mass and/or its volume. A U-shaped trend was found in the development of weight/mass conservation. This is interpreted in terms\ud of the developing complexity of children's conceptions making schema selection and co-ordination more problematic. The development of 'dissolved volume' conservation started with few pupils in the early years and progressed in an almost linear fashion. There is evidence of a complex relationship between the development of volume displacement\ud and the way matter is modelled.\ud \ud The findings about atomism indicated that whereas a major\ud proportion of pupils in each year-group spontaneously imagined an atomistic view of matter, few of them used such a conception to explain weight/mass or volume conservation. It appears that early atomism is based on the view Of matter being broken down into 'bits'. The way this interacts with conservation reasoning is described.\ud \ud Educational implications of the findings are discussed together with suggestions for further research

Publisher: School of Education (Leeds)
Year: 1987
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:421

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  316. 10 07 07 01 12 OS 2 09 10 0911 22 7 07 08 14
  317. 10 07 07 01 17 07 2 13 11 08 07 07 7 07 10 22
  318. 10 07 07 01 17 cH 3 16 11 03 09 10 7 07 10 22
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  320. 10 07 07 01 19 07 2 08 12 09 07 09 7 08 07 08
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  322. 10 07 07 01 19 07 2 12 10 09 07 08 7 07 08 14
  323. 10 07 07 01 19 08 2 09 10 09 09 10 7 07 08 14
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  325. 10 07 07 01 20 07 2 08 10 10 11 22 7 07 07 08
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  328. 10 07 07 01 20 08 1 07 12 08 08 08 7 07 07 07
  329. 10 07 07 01 21 07 1 07 08 20 10 11 7 08 08 15
  330. 10 07 07 01 21 07 2 08 10 08 10 10 1 07 10 23
  331. 10 07 07 01'21 07 2 09 10 09 10 10 7 07 10 23
  332. 10 07 07 11 19 07 3 16.09 09 10 09 7 07 09 17
  333. 10 07 07 16 07 07 3 14 09 09 11 22 . 7 07 10 22
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  337. 10 07 07 21 18 OE 2 08 11 08 07 08 7 07 09 17
  338. 10 0707 22 17 08 2 12 09 08 10 10 7 07 08 12
  339. 10 140 Interview Conservation of volume
  340. 10 203 Multiple choice test. Cognitive motivation
  341. 10 u7 07 ul 1? 37 2 00 1? 0-7 37 07 7 07 08 14 ICY/0 10 u7 c? n 7
  342. 10.2 5 Middle High 09.11.84 (5.304) School Mar Leeds
  343. 10.85 Pau
  344. 10004 03 14 09 01 01 03 1 01 03 01 03 03 8-01 10 01
  345. 11
  346. 1111
  347. 12
  348. 12 100 Clinical Conservation & atomism
  349. 12 180
  350. 123 1 10 J c
  351. 13
  352. 13 1 0004 03 13 W 02 07 09 2 00 10 07 03 7 01 08 14
  353. 13. SMITH, J.K. (1984). The Problem of Criteria for Judging Interpretative Inquiry. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 6,
  354. 14
  355. 14 O4 (Y.'. 07
  356. 1414-
  357. 15
  358. 15 527
  359. 15 61 Interview Particle ideas about solutions
  360. 16 not Class Particle
  361. 166 1 3004 03 13 11 01 2 0 c 2 06 10 20 03 03 7 08 01 01
  362. 17
  363. 19
  364. 1D-94 Mar (10.013) F 14.8 10 C.S.E.PO'level Biology,Physics Chemistry
  365. 2
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  466. 2 0004 07 09 13 01 13 08 1 06 10. 11 10 20 7 07 08 01
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  535. 2 1030 12 02 97 17 19 03 2 11 10 10 07 08 7 07 03 12
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  566. 2 3004 07 10 07 01 20 07 3 15 10 07 08 08 7 07 08 13
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  569. 2 Co," 12 ul 37 17 07 .3° 2 OP 10 09 07 08 7 07 10 22
  570. 2 Gowin's Epistemological Vee. APPENDIX 2 A summary of research related to children's understanding of dissolution. A-2.1 APPENDIX 3.1 Interview
  571. 2 i r u:) le ul 01 17 19 07 09 11 I P 1 n 10 7 07 08 14A-3.10.13 • IDNoA B COEFG . HJK LM NPQRST
  572. 2 oro4 03 13 14 11 11 J3 04 10 12 10 12 9 01 01 01
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  578. 2 u7 2 l n
  579. 2 uro. 03 13 09 01 11 37 ? 06 08 22 03 03 7 01 08 01
  580. 20
  581. 20-23. SELLEY, N.J. (1979). Scientific Models and Theories: Case Studies of the Practice of School Science Teachers. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Kings College, London. SHAYER, M., and
  582. 21
  583. 22
  584. 24
  585. 26
  586. 274. JONES, H. (1981). Pierre Gassendi's Institutio Logica (1658). Van Gorcum, Assen. KELLY, G.A.
  587. 2o 0 1J e7 ul )1 "7 1 15 10 09 11 01 7 08 10 23
  588. 3
  589. 3 ! '
  590. 3 1 0004 07 08 07 01 01 08 3 14 10 13 10 15 7 07 08 12
  591. 3' U. 3 14 11 01 05 08 2 ls ..;%-.05 05 n5 7 05 10 05
  592. 30 lo 07 07 01 17 37 3 14 10 09 07 08 7 07 10 23
  593. 34 2 ? ouP, e
  594. 391. SMITH, J.K., and HESHUSIUS, L. (1986). Closing Down the
  595. 4
  596. 4 0004 03 14 07 01 03 07 3 14 10 15 10 18 7 08 10 24
  597. 4 00o4 03 14 11 01 19 03 ? 09 D5 05 11 ?2,7 08 Od 14
  598. 4 1 0233 10 01 07 23 17 07 2 11 10 13 lo 13 7 07 10 22
  599. 4\re
  600. 414e-/
  601. 5
  602. 5 PIAGET, J. (1971). Genetic
  603. 54 1 uu04 37 09 01 11 1', 07 ! 15 10 IM u5 05 5 o c 03 01A-3.10.8 IONoA B COEFGRJK LMNPQRST
  604. 7
  605. 7 '
  606. 71
  607. 8
  608. 9
  609. 9 ,
  610. 9 2 0004 05 14 07 01 07 Oe 2 0 ,, 09 16 10 15 7 05 05 05
  611. 9 2 1C00 10 07 07 17 19 07 2 12 12 09 10 09 7 07 08 13
  612. 9/k
  613. 91 Class tasks/ discussion Conservation & atomism
  614. 94 1 0004 03 14 08 01 08 07 2 08 08 22 11 22 8 05 07 01
  615. 95. PIAGET, J. (1926/73). The Child's Conception of the World
  616. a solid 0 a liquid 0 a solution
  617. A-3.10.6 ID NoA B COEFGHJKLMNPQRST
  618. A.
  619. A. ....They wouldn't be down at the bottom though, they'ed be up at the top.
  620. A. (I don't know)
  621. A. (Up here.)
  622. A. All over the place.
  623. A. Because
  624. A. Because it's see-through and it's disappeared. It's dissolved.
  625. A. Because the water'll be able to go where that is, back to it's own place and it'll go back down. PHASE 5: (not required) PHASE 6: REVIEW
  626. A. Because you
  627. A. Bits of glass.
  628. A. By
  629. A. Can see little bits
  630. A. Collect a lot of stuff.
  631. A. Don't know, you would cut yourself.
  632. A. Feels slidy.
  633. A. Five. you've been given
  634. A. floats up to the top
  635. A. Half?
  636. A. I just thought that if the water's flying down you'ed be able to see the sugar in the
  637. A. I think it'll be
  638. A. I'd say that one.
  639. A. I'd see all the bits of sugar. Clk 0 4 rl t 5
  640. A. If I drop one of these pebbles into the water the water would go higher.
  641. A. If I put my
  642. A. If that was the
  643. A. It could be sugar or salt.
  644. A. It goes higher
  645. A. It'll go back down
  646. A. It's a funny shape.
  647. A. It's an oblong shape.
  648. A. It's dissolving and you can see all the bits.
  649. A. It's dissolving.A-3.2.2(Adr)
  650. A. It's shiny.
  651. A. Looking at the
  652. A. Mm
  653. A. Mm.
  654. A. No. You can see through it as well.
  655. A. Same as that one done.
  656. A. Scales.
  657. A. Shape of a diamond.
  658. A. some are stuck together.
  659. A. Still the
  660. A. Sugar
  661. A. The sugar.
  662. A. The weight's the same.
  663. A. There's a few bits in here stuck together.
  664. A. These are quite big.
  665. A. They couldn't be anything else?
  666. A. They won't be
  667. A. This one.
  668. A. Those two are both the same.
  669. A. Three.
  670. A. Water usually just
  671. A. Water.
  672. A. Weigh them.
  673. A. Well, one's on the red one
  674. A. Which is heavier and which is lighter.
  675. A. Will it go higher with the weight?
  676. A. Yes, a few times.
  677. A. Yes. Only just.
  678. A. Yes. Squares and all sorts of shapes.
  679. A.J.,
  680. Adey (Jamaica)
  681. ADEY, P. (1976). Two Tasks for
  682. and
  683. and I think that's what would happen (.) it would rise
  684. Anderson (U.S.A.)
  685. any
  686. APPENDIX
  687. as
  688. b
  689. back
  690. balance.
  691. Beard (England)
  692. Both the same; they've got the same water in.
  693. boy.
  694. C
  695. C 10 07 07 01 07 07 3 14 10 12 10 10 7 OP 09 19
  696. C 10 07 07 01 20 07 3 14 1,0 09 10 09 7 07 08 14
  697. c,
  698. c; o f, V' f: 6 OY u7 or5
  699. c. 0000 12 02 07 01 19 0.7 3 15 03 09 07 09 7 07 10 25
  700. c. Ic lu /
  701. c.,..ctiA_C Please draw some
  702. c.4
  703. c04 09 0/ 01 01 U 4 ? 09 08 22 10 13 7 05 10 05
  704. C3
  705. C441A-3.2.3(Cla)
  706. can
  707. can't
  708. cannot
  709. Column
  710. Cosgrove & 8-17 43 Interview Dissolving
  711. cotrOtczt
  712. çy1
  713. D0J
  714. Describe
  715. disintegrated,
  716. dissolving'
  717. done an experiment that illustrated the conservation of mass? Date Signed * Please tick(,/) the appropriate boxes Thank you for your assistance. (Please return in the enclosed s.a.e.)A-4.1
  718. double pan balance 0 single pan balance *Would the pupils have had previous experience of measuring
  719. Dow, Auld
  720. Down
  721. Drake Xtre Describe your picture of the 'inside' of a granule of sugar. Boys Girl)! AgeA-3.3.4 Rob is playing with a medicine measure. He has put some water in it. He is wondering }/hat will happen to the water if he puts a large
  722. Driver & 8-14 324 Interview/ Dissolving Russell writing and conservation (Leeds/Penang) tasks of mass.
  723. drop.
  724. drops
  725. e
  726. Egg
  727. egg-cup
  728. else
  729. erm (7.0)
  730. F 15.3 10 '0' Level (10.605) Biology Average 28.02.85A-3.2.1(Adr) Interview with Adr. I.D. No.: 2201 (3.201) School-year 3 Gender: M Ability: low Age: 8.7 Curriculum: Primary Science PHASE 1: GAINING
  731. F. (1952). Aristotle's System of the
  732. Fake
  733. Familiarity with certain experimental work Would the pupils have previously:
  734. Familiarity with measurement *Would the pupils have had previous experience of the instruments listed below?
  735. Familiarity:with diagrammatic representation. *Would the pupils have previously seen 'particulate' diagrams that represent the items below?
  736. for
  737. Friedman 13-18 34 Interviews Dissolving (Australia) (instances)
  738. from sugar
  739. funny
  740. Girl
  741. girl.
  742. gone
  743. gradually
  744. granule
  745. granules
  746. heavier,
  747. her
  748. hum some materials like this are soft ((polythene)) others are hard some in between - have you ever thought about hardness
  749. hum.
  750. I
  751. I 0004 07 10 07 ul 07 0!! 7. 15 16 11 11 22 7 09 07 11
  752. i 1030 10 31 07 19 10,, 07 2 12 11 08 07 07 7 07 10 22
  753. i 2 0004 05 11 07 01 01 07 1 07 10 11 11 ?2 8 11 11 05
  754. i U(:04 Z3 11 08 01 055 1 01
  755. I.
  756. I. ((place a white card underneath)) here have a nice clean surface - there you are
  757. I. a tablet.
  758. I. About half a teaspoonful. That's okay. That's fine. Put it in yes. Hold this with your left hand and stir with your right. Stir it, yes. Tell me what you think is happening in there. Pretend
  759. I. And
  760. I. And the same what? What do scales measure?
  761. I. and then when it's dissolved in water any of those?
  762. I. and what made you think it was a crystal?
  763. I. and what makes it go down?
  764. I. And whereabouts, for example, would it be floating?
  765. I. And why is that do you think?
  766. I. anything else happening Claire?
  767. I. Anything else you notice
  768. I. both about the same aren't
  769. I. but it's like that it reminds you of that?
  770. I. but lots of children I talk to say this side weighs less - now why do you think they tell
  771. I. but they are both weighing down - what I am asking you is why do you think
  772. I. can you tell me why your mind is telling you that - why you think
  773. I. Couldn't be anything else. Where did
  774. I. Different from what?
  775. I. Dissolving is it? That's a big word for a little
  776. I. Do these have a bottom?
  777. I. do they remind you of anything - these?
  778. I. Do you? And where do you keep it
  779. I. Do you? That's great.
  780. I. does anything spring to your mind at the moment as to why some things like that are hard and other things are soft?
  781. I. draw whatever you think
  782. I. fine - so
  783. I. fine thank you PHASE 3: WEIGHING DISSOLVED SUGAR p totitt
  784. I. give me the spoon then - now if I put the beaker back on there do you think it's going to be lighter
  785. I. have you any idea of the size of these things?
  786. I. have you any idea what gives it a
  787. I. have you thought why something so hard as sugar should break up in water? what do you think causes something so hard to
  788. I. Here the same thing in a smaller form I'm sure you'll recognise that
  789. I. how do you think it got to be like this?
  790. I. How does that help you?
  791. I. hum
  792. I. hum hum
  793. I. hum hum - I see - now suppose that this ((diagram)) represents one of these little crystals of sugar and it's going into thw water - by the time it's reached here
  794. I. hum hum - you'd call them crystals - is there anything you find interesting about them
  795. I. hum hum (.)
  796. I. hum hum (.) well what would happen when we first put it in do you think?
  797. I. hum hum (3.0) and how does that happen do you think that when you put sugar in water it gets lighter
  798. I. hum hum and if you put
  799. I. hum hum now suppose again with your Super Fleur eyes you looked at one of these granules - you looked inside it - magnified again many millions of times urm what do you think the sugar would be like inside?
  800. I. hum hum so what's happened now do you think?
  801. I. hum hum what makes you
  802. I. I mean now it's
  803. I. I notice you are lifting them up in your hands how does that help you?
  804. I. I see
  805. I. I see - anything in particular - I mean - these stones have got shape
  806. I. I see - I was just thinking if you had any two stones or any two 'anythings' they all weigh
  807. I. I see - just
  808. I. I see - um hum er - anything else that's interesting about it.
  809. I. I see and if you throw it away then you think that what?
  810. I. I see and um er would you describe them as being hard or soft or what
  811. I. I see keep stirring it - are you left-handed - well hold it with your right hand then.
  812. I. I see so what do you suppose happens to this in there? it goes into a hole does it?
  813. I. I see um hum -
  814. I. I see, they're stick together. Little bits stuck together. Is that what you
  815. I. I see. Put in it and see what happens. It was on three now it's towards three and a half. Okay. Now suppose we.. .what's happened to that. Now suppose we left this
  816. I. I see. right thanks PHASE 4: VOLUME OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE
  817. I. I see. Right, well we'll leave it there for a minute.
  818. I. I see. Very interesting. Well it's been very interesting talking to you Adr. Thank you very much for telling me your
  819. I. I seeA-3.2.1(Mar) Interview with Mar. I.D. No.: 4405 (7.405) School-year: 7 Gender: M Ability: average Age: 11.10 Curriculum: Leeds Middle Science PHASE
  820. I. if you have a look at this again - you rememver we had
  821. I. Imagine that you have two articles - bricks, stones anything and I said to you
  822. I. interesting - are you suggesting that when they get together they form crystals again?
  823. I. is it bits? yes um hum really tiny bits in there an er let's suppose you could - er Super-Mark looked inside one of these granules - we've drawn it
  824. I. it goes in the middle - so would you put one on each side then - so which is
  825. I. it might not disappear altogether - um hum - very interesting might not dissolve completely which
  826. I. it says on it
  827. I. It says on the packet
  828. I. It would put your hand down would it? It's a bit hard to decide though without using something like this. What are these?
  829. I. It's a funny shape. I see. What's funny about the shape would you say?
  830. I. It's bits again. Righto. Put bits. You needn't bother with floating. Just
  831. I. Just have a look at this before you go - we had these two beakers one with sugar in and one with water - lots of children tell me what you told me that this one becomes lighter - when the sugar's dissolved - in actual fact it stays the same as you
  832. I. just imagine for a moment there' a person called Super Fleur who has Superwoman qualities
  833. I. just put 'little bits dissolve' there and when they dissolve what happens to them did you say?
  834. I. Just put floating bits would you? Do you know how to
  835. I. keep stirring
  836. I. keep stirring - you're talking about dissolving - erm what do you think happens to things when they dissolve? what goes through your mind?
  837. I. keep stirring.
  838. I. Keep stirring. I think there's still some there isn't there. You say it disappears. Where do you think it's gone to?
  839. I. Let's have a look at some things -here are a few things - have you ever
  840. I. little tiny bits - would you like to write that there - you said that was because it might not dissolve completely. kto
  841. I. millilitre dose. Okay.
  842. I. Mm, disappears. Anything else?
  843. I. Mm. Let's have a look. We can't see it any more.
  844. I. no
  845. I. No. They remind you of ice do they? That's a bit broken that one I think.
  846. I. Now I want you to imagine something very exciting. I want you to imagine for a minute that Superman gave you his clothes and his eyes and you could actually see in there. Now Superman can see inside buildings
  847. I. now just ((sometime)) before you put one of those into this dish here (.) where has it gone now?
  848. I. now let's use some water instead right put those on and find out
  849. I. Now suppose that you took - you had a look at one .... you're looking into one drop magnified with your super eyes, Super Adrian's looking into here, into one drop. What would you see inside do you think? Just in one drop. What's that?
  850. I. now suppose we left that one in here until you couldn't see it anymore what do you
  851. I. now we'll take some
  852. I. Now when you
  853. I. Now, talking about being poorly, I expect some medicine at some time or other have you?
  854. I. oh I see
  855. I. Oh, I see, a sort of mould. You make that do you - in school or at home?
  856. I. One of the first things I would like you to have a look at is these ((large sugar crystals)) If you would like to pick one up and er touch it feel it - perhaps you would like to tell me first of all what you would call something that looked like that?
  857. I. or do you think it is like having something with holes in and it disappears? where have you come across this idea of having holes in things? things disappearing through holes? where
  858. I. or is it just like going into a
  859. I. perhaps you'd be interested in some of these things I've got here ((large sugar crystals)) - just have a
  860. I. Really they're....
  861. I. really tiny drops
  862. I. right - well let's try the scales then and er we'll see - let's just stop this swinging ((adjusts
  863. I. Right Adr, suppose you,ve got two
  864. I. right thanks PHASE 5: WEIGHT REVISITED
  865. I. Right, well will you put it into that water there and we'll see what happens to it.
  866. I. Right, well, do you want to say any more about this? You've said it's a funny shape. What shape is it would you say?
  867. I. Shape of a diamond. You've said it's hard.
  868. I. so
  869. I. so in that case you think that this ((yellow i.e. S in W)) is lighter for some reason
  870. I. So is there anything between those little bits?
  871. I. so just after we put it in what's going to happen did you say?
  872. I. so the Whispa is heavier than the Areo - mow
  873. I. so you have the idea that manufacturers cut them?
  874. I. so you have the idea that when things are diffused they don't take up as much space as when they're in one place - is that what you are telling me?
  875. I. so you imagine it like jelly - a lump
  876. I. So you think some
  877. I. so you think this would change into little bits do you? 0
  878. I. so you'd think they'd be plain - " a:
  879. I. So you're a keen collector. Right, come and sit
  880. I. so your
  881. I. Some things
  882. I. suppose we have two objects ((shown)) It's like you to tell me how you'd compare their
  883. I. suppose we put the water back on - what would you notice do you think?
  884. I. suppose you were Superwoman and you can see inside
  885. I. That one. That's
  886. I. That one...Well we'll take some out of that one then and we'll put it in this one. Take some out of here and put it in there...Now when it's balanced that mark is opposite there you see. It's about there now isn't it. Right, so what can you
  887. I. That one's heavier. Well when that one's
  888. I. that's very interesting let's think about your idea then - here are these little sugar granules - can you see them with the magnifying glass
  889. I. That's very interesting. What makes you think they move inside when you turn round?
  890. I. The same weight. Agree - the same weight? If I put these two back on, what would you expect?
  891. I. there you are using something about your knowledge of the inside. You said pick them up and usually when you pick things up you
  892. I. there's a hole in where do you think?
  893. I. they are sharp um: I see - well I tell you what - would you put it in that dish of water and we'll see what happens to it -these are actually pieces of sugar that you can get in the Supermarket
  894. I. this one is a bit heavier than that one isn't it se
  895. I. um hum - and it'll go down a bit because - you said what?
  896. I. um hum - I see kal2. She is very busy stirring. When she stops stirring she cannot see any sugar granules.
  897. I. um hum - well feel it then. what does it feel like?
  898. I. um hum - well we'll just put that away a minute let's just think about
  899. I. um hum does it strike you as strange that it could be all over or not - you've used this word settled and things very often settle don't they - so what convinces you that it's all over? -rather than
  900. I. um hum is that because of its size you can't see it? - you said it's all broken up or is there any other reason
  901. I. um hum so we've got rid of the sugar that we could see but you were telling me slao that if we were Super then we'd still be able to see the sugar in there --you thought - you were
  902. I. um hum what do you
  903. I. um hum whatever you think happens to it - suppose you had a camera and you took some snapshots of it every few minutes what do you think you would see?
  904. I. um hum would
  905. I. um:
  906. I. Use it to take some out. There we are. We've now got a 3 mil dose.
  907. I. Use some scales so that's just.. .There we
  908. I. We'll think about another measure people use - I expect you've seen one of
  909. I. well - let's see which is the heaviest of those two
  910. I. well I expect you'll here it one day - suppose we take a piece of sugar
  911. I. Well I'll let you into a little secret actually. These, in fact, are pieces of sugar.
  912. I. well just write clear would you underneath there - thank you that's very interesting. Well you have more or
  913. I. well take them off please - and
  914. I. Well those are not bits. I think that's just an air bubble. Those sort of come in when they've been made or else it's something stuck on the outside.
  915. I. well you put it in and we'll see what happens (.) dead on five at the moment (3.0) now its 5.2 about
  916. I. what
  917. I. What do you mean with the weight?
  918. I. what do you think would happen to the water?
  919. I. What makes them rise up and go into thin air?
  920. I. What's given you
  921. I. what's going to make it lighter
  922. I. where did you get that idea from - that it's all over?
  923. I. where do you think they've gone?
  924. I. Where will it float about?
  925. I. where would you say it has gone?
  926. I. Why at the bottom
  927. I. why do you think you can't see them anymore?
  928. I. Why does it go higher do you think?
  929. I. will they?
  930. I. With ordinary eyes you can just see straight through them. They're like diamonds. What I want you to imagine,
  931. I. would you like to tell me about colour again? you were rather keen on the colour when you were dissolving - what
  932. I. write
  933. I. yeah (.)
  934. I. yeah (.) well why do you
  935. I. yes - if you had X-ray eyes where do you think it would be in the water?
  936. I. yes - would you take half a teaspoonful of that put it into there
  937. I. Yes, well that's
  938. I. Yes. And if that happens what do you think will happen to the water in there?
  939. I. you have just handled crystals of sugar - what I'd like you to
  940. I. you imagine them breaking up
  941. I. you still think
  942. I. you think it might have been cut?
  943. I. You think it'll be the same
  944. I. you think it'll break up?
  945. I. You think it's made of little bits of
  946. I. you think some of the sugar
  947. I. You think that will be heavier
  948. I. You think there are bits of glass
  949. I. You think they move inside do you?
  950. I. You're weighing them in your hands at the moment
  951. i.7 ql IC
  952. ide
  953. If Liz
  954. in
  955. Inagaki & Hatano (Japan)
  956. is
  957. It's like that medicine, that sort of powder stuff you drink when it's dissolved.
  958. it44441
  959. J.K.,
  960. JO
  961. Junior
  962. Just sort of steam sort of stuff and then it just floats out just water so sugar must do the same. 13. I. You think the
  963. ko
  964. lead to new attempts to / generate links
  965. level
  966. Liz
  967. Liz is putting a spoonful of sugar granules into a glass A-3.3.1 APPENDIX 3.3 THE SURVEY TASKS 1 LII Liz is playing with sugar and water. Please follow what she is doing and then give your ideas.
  968. Liz is wondering what has happened to the sugar; she can't see
  969. Liz stirs the
  970. Liz takes her mug off the scales and pours her sugar into
  971. ln
  972. lrys-
  973. lu 07 07 01 07 2 12 l n 13 10 13 7 07 10 22
  974. Lue29/U.
  975. M 11.10 7 Middle Average 16.10.84 (7.405) School Fie C.S.E/
  976. M 8.6 3 Science Low
  977. melting 0 dissolving
  978. more
  979. mug
  980. names.
  981. no
  982. NoA B CDEF G HJK LM NPQRS I
  983. NOVAK, J.D., and GOWIN, D.B. (1984). Learning how to Learn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. NUSSBAUM, J., and NOVICK, S. (1982). Alternative Frameworks, Conceptual
  984. o
  985. o 1 0004 07 10 07 01 2u 07 2 08 10 13 09 11 7 07 03 14
  986. o 10 1 0004 17 10 :s 1 01 )7 ' 09 10 O rg 10 7 09 08 15
  987. o Oa ? Jf, G3 !P
  988. o.
  989. O. 0 1,0 (Scotland)
  990. Oh
  991. on
  992. OR
  993. Os
  994. P 12
  995. p to spend.
  996. P.
  997. P. 'cos it dissolving into the water.
  998. P. ((points
  999. P. (8.0) oh (8.0)
  1000. P. all over
  1001. P. an' it'll get smaller and smaller here as it goes
  1002. P. and gradually they'll all start dissolvin'
  1003. P. are they crystals?
  1004. P. because it can't 'ave evaporated and it couldn't l ave gone anywhere else - only in the water
  1005. P. because the sugar's spread out more and diffused it's not one solid shape
  1006. P. because the weights bigger and heavier
  1007. P. because these are made out of - type very - probably these are
  1008. P. because they can't see the sugar anymore it's like throwing it away
  1009. P. because they're all broken up and like when it was
  1010. P. because this one's got umm: well, we've added the sugar
  1011. P. because when it's dissolving the water tud
  1012. P. because when we were weighing before this
  1013. P. because whichever goes down the most is
  1014. P. because you couldn't really tell because your hands aren't very aren't as accurate as the scales
  1015. P. bits
  1016. P. but when it dissolves it'll go back down again a little bit PHASE 5: WEIGHT REVISITED
  1017. P. completely.
  1018. P. cos it's only got that on it it hasn't got the sugar either
  1019. P. crystals
  1020. P. does it stick to the glass or the bottom if it come in
  1021. P. er (1.0) put them on some scales -
  1022. P. er crystals all over scattered all over
  1023. P. er it'll all break up - like that
  1024. P. er you find them in stones - in different stones 'cos you see -if you pick a stone up
  1025. P. er: (6.0) I
  1026. P. erm (9.0) if you put some different kinds of things that erm I can't think what kind of things - it dissolves them kind of thing - like a disprin or tab.
  1027. P. erm you can tell difference between these because one of them all weigh your hand down
  1028. P. how they are
  1029. P. I don't know actually um I don't think of it's size I
  1030. P. I just think it would be clear actually you know with just like I think it would be clear not crystals or solid or form - its not like its got little bits all over it'd be just clear
  1031. P. I think cos when you put the sugar
  1032. P. I think if it'd been settled the - well if one crystal 'ad 'ave been settled they'd all 'ave been settled and they'd all go down to the bottom and you'd see them again and the crystals would be all down there and not diffused or whatever
  1033. P. I think it might not go back exactly on three but lower and therefore down
  1034. P. I think it would probably be at the bottom
  1035. P. I think it would probably rise a bit more and get higher and higher
  1036. P. I think they've all
  1037. P. in the water
  1038. P. in the waterA-3.2.2(Fle)
  1039. P. inside the drop? -1.1.1r,k4 .44-PGre.6-• n _ C
  1040. P. into the water - type of sugar
  1041. P. is it in the water and when if you felt this water would you feel a little bit of sugar in?
  1042. P. it
  1043. P. it dissolves with little white bits in
  1044. P. it just feels like normal water
  1045. P. it might not disappear.
  1046. P. it sparkles.
  1047. P. it was
  1048. P. it would rise a bit more
  1049. P. it would rise because we said it would dissolve and the bits would make it rise
  1050. P. it would start dissolving and maybe the water would come up a bit
  1051. P. it;s going to be lighter.
  1052. P. it'll go a murky colour and then it'll dissolve and then it'll rise
  1053. P. it's - it's not spreading about most of
  1054. P. it's all gone
  1055. P. it's been cut
  1056. P. it's gone a different colour - it's gone - it 'asn't stayed um pure like
  1057. P. it's gone into the water really
  1058. P. it's like a little but it's like a little ice but it doesn't feel as cold as ice-this.
  1059. P. it's like it goes into the water but it' like the
  1060. P. it's more or less gone.
  1061. P. its not there anymore and it's
  1062. P. just about yes right
  1063. P. just think it'd be something inside the sugar
  1064. P. no
  1065. P. no not really
  1066. P. no well the
  1067. P. no.
  1068. P. not form crystals but they'd be in the same place and you'd see them more but they all might be broken up there
  1069. P. now it's all gone
  1070. P. on there it'll get - it'll be much smaller then here it'll be a few dots - there'll be a few bits of granules and then here there's
  1071. P. pick them up - I'd say this was the heaviest 'cos that's got holes in
  1072. P. plain
  1073. P. plain - shall I write plain?
  1074. P. see it starting
  1075. P. shall I just draw little dots
  1076. P. so I think it'ud probably get higher
  1077. P. so I think that this one probably will be heavier
  1078. P. so I think this red one'll probably be heavier
  1079. P. so it's making the water rise
  1080. P. thank you and they're just goin' straight to the bottom
  1081. P. that
  1082. P. that one by a tiny little bit 'cos it's not dead on
  1083. P. that one.
  1084. P. that one's just over
  1085. P. the content of the sugar - how heavy the sugar is and how heavy the glass is - how big the glass is made - and this one's quite
  1086. P. the water's going a funny colour - urm the dark - is type of darkish
  1087. P. then with this one there's just water in there there's nothig else
  1088. P. there'll still be tiny bits you can't see but maybe Superwoman can. PHASE 3: WEIGHING DISSOLVED SUGAR
  1089. P. they 'ad different amounts of water in them each that - that one 'ad the most in at first until you took some out 'cos it went up there
  1090. P. they are both the same.
  1091. P. they both weigh the same
  1092. P. they both weigh the same.
  1093. P. they um well like it's hard to explain they um they just like
  1094. P. they'd be the same - in the middle
  1095. P. they'ed still weigh the same.
  1096. P. they're not staying all - they're not
  1097. P. this is about the heaviest (further balance instruction) aA-3.2.5(Fle)
  1098. P. um
  1099. P. um - it's as if you are pouring it into something - into
  1100. P. um clear
  1101. P. um:
  1102. P. was it
  1103. P. well - which is the heaviest you'll lift that up more that the lightest like a weight when you put a weight on the scale if you've got the heaviest the weight goes down the lightest stays up
  1104. P. well if it's all broken up so its not like settled anywhere if it'd been settled we'd 'ave seen
  1105. P. well it might say on the packet or if it doesn't say on the packet you might
  1106. P. well it's all
  1107. P. well the sugar's in the water - it does - it's even dissolved -it still stays as heavy - it makes the water just as heavy -that's the weight of the water
  1108. P. well the sugar's sunk to the bottom when you stir it it's moving around it's dissolving I think I don't
  1109. P. well when a heavy object goes to the bottom of a thing the
  1110. P. well when it came in the water it was disappearing it (*) disappearing into the water but when you felt it was as if
  1111. P. when I first put it in?
  1112. P. when there's um (2.0) like the balck hole and such
  1113. P. when you see a crystal it's usually shaped like this - it's shaped a bit
  1114. P. when you stir it around you can hardly see the bits of sugar.
  1115. P. whereabouts -
  1116. P. would you put that one - there's some water in a dish there -put it in the water and we'll come back to it in a bit and see what happens to it PHASE 2: 'DISSOLVING'
  1117. P. yeah
  1118. P. yeah an' then it'll if yer stir it a bit more it'll dissolve into the water
  1119. P. yeah I think that one's lighter
  1120. P. yeah I think yeah I think this one ((red)) will be heavier
  1121. P. yeah that one's the heaviest
  1122. P. yes
  1123. P. yes.
  1124. P. yesA-3.2.4(Cla)
  1125. P. you can just see it (.) just there you can just tiny very see it just dissolving
  1126. P. you can see through it - just - a square
  1127. P. you could be wrong 'cos these could be the lightest and this one could be the heaviest so they could be wrong - with your hands
  1128. P. you get the for it to dissolve it
  1129. particle,
  1130. Pfundt & Grutzman
  1131. Piaget and Inhelder (Switzerland)
  1132. picture
  1133. Plastic
  1134. PN.,,Jk24
  1135. pour
  1136. Q1 fi t, n 1
  1137. Q3n 10 07 11 7 01 21 J7 S 15 11 0,? 08 08 7 07 09A-3.10.10 IDNoA B CDEFG HJK LM NPQRST
  1138. r 2 0004 0; 14 0 j1 08 07 2 O R, 10 20 01 OS .1 05 05 05
  1139. r Longden (England)
  1140. r,
  1141. R. McCormmach, (Ed.), Historical
  1142. r.741,--,
  1143. r5
  1144. reason
  1145. recovered a solid solute from a solution?
  1146. RESPONSE
  1147. S 2
  1148. say,
  1149. scales
  1150. School Science
  1151. Science
  1152. see
  1153. Selley (England)
  1154. Sentences Dissolving.A-3.1 APPENDIX 3.1 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Phase 1. Gaining interest and attention Putting at ease - sharing purpose and interests Hello (Name of pupil)
  1155. separated a mixture of soluble and insoluble substances?
  1156. Shayer & Wharrey (U.K.)
  1157. she
  1158. so
  1159. solute o atom ID dissolving O mel ting 0 crystallising o molecule O weight O mass
  1160. somewhat
  1161. spaces.
  1162. Specific
  1163. spoonful
  1164. sugar
  1165. suppose then you took some snapshots of it at different times
  1166. t 1 0004 03 14 11 01 12 07 2 08 08 22 10 19 7 07 07 08
  1167. t. ? 1 0 00 10 07 07 01 17 07 2 0u. 10 11 11 22 7 10 08 03
  1168. tA.,QtAlci
  1169. take
  1170. takes
  1171. TEACHER
  1172. th-year
  1173. th-year boy.
  1174. th-year girl.
  1175. Thank
  1176. that
  1177. the
  1178. The original task sheets have been reduced by 20% in these reproductions.1. They pour water into their mugs and the scales balance. They say, "The mugs are the same weight".
  1179. the volume of a liquid using a measuring cylinder?
  1180. the volume of a solid by displacement?
  1181. their
  1182. then
  1183. Then they fill their egg-cups with enough sugar granules to make the scales balance
  1184. they
  1185. they fill their egg-cups with enough sugar granules to make the scales balance again. I.
  1186. They pour water into their mugs and the
  1187. think
  1188. tN. Describe your picture of the tinsidei of the drop. If Superman Rob' could see inside a tiny granule of sugar, draw the detail that you think he could see.
  1189. U 004 93 13 11 J1 20 07 2 06 03 n 1 10 13 7 07 07 01
  1190. U004 03 13 07 01 07 O.' 2 OM 10 12 03 03 8 05 n5 05
  1191. u4
  1192. u61 Jo(“:, ,,Cu2 le v7 •1 ;);.! u 1 (,3
  1193. um hum PHASE 3: WEIGHING THE DISSOLVED SUGAR
  1194. unrelated,
  1195. Unsuccessful constructions
  1196. until
  1197. volume o particle
  1198. water
  1199. water until she cannot see the sugar granules.
  1200. water?
  1201. weight,
  1202. Well it's different.
  1203. what
  1204. whatever
  1205. When
  1206. when the sugar's put in it's by itself and then when its put into the water it being mixed
  1207. when you say they're dissolving - what do you think
  1208. Where's that stick thing?
  1209. Why do you think we can't see it in there....? Why is it not possible to see it any more do you think?
  1210. with
  1211. wondering
  1212. would have dissolved
  1213. yes . 13. I. I see - did you notice anything else besides its shape?
  1214. yes.
  1215. Yes. Don't worry too much about what it looks like. Now what do the scales tell us? What are the scales for? They tell us ?
  1216. you
  1217. you've
  1218. z.,

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