Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Economic and political liberalisation in the Middle East:the Muslim brotherhood and the politics of succession in Egypt

By Mohammed Zahid


This thesis explores the process of economic and political reform in Egypt, by taking into consideration the role of the Muslim Brotherhood and the politics of succession\ud in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood is arguably the most important political actor in Egypt, and by looking at how the Muslim Brotherhood developed strength over the\ud decades through a process of change in its shape and character, it will allow an understanding of how it was able to pose a challenge to the Egyptian government at a\ud time of economic reform in 1991 and the consequences, which followed for the process of political change in Egypt. Also, a look at the process of political succession\ud in Egypt, which has risen to the surface over the last 6 years, will allow an understanding into the actors and forces involved in the politics of succession and the\ud consequences, which emerge for the future process of reform, in particular political reform in Egypt

Publisher: School of Politics & International Studies (POLIS) (Leeds)
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2002)5 If you want to win the War, win the Debate,
  2. 15 th Hawthorne, A
  3. (2001). A Grand Delusion: Democracy and Economic Refomi in E, doi
  4. (2000). A HistoEy of Modem Yemen,
  5. (2005). A lastinjz legacy'- Reflections issue,
  6. (2006). A New Boost "or Privatization', Al-Ahram Weekly, 7-13 December, Issue No, 511 '1000. 240 -'Glimpses into the history of the Muslim Brotherhood', IkhA, anweb, March I st.
  7. (1990). A Political Economy of the Middle East: State Class and Economic Development, doi
  8. (2003). A Refon-n from Above-, the Politics of Participation in the Oil Monarchies, doi
  9. A Retum to the Centre', Al A-hram Weekly 9- 15 December, Issue No,
  10. (2000). A] Su'ud al Siyasi_al Islam, dakhll al Niqabat al Mlhania,.
  11. (2001). Advancing Democracy: the Clinton Legacy, Camegie Endowment Centre for International Peace,
  12. After the Elections', Al Ahram Weekly, 15-21 December, Issue No, 773,2005. th 'A Revolution to End the Revolution'.
  13. Al Ahram Weekly,
  14. (1998). Al Azhar between the Govenunent and the Islamists,
  15. (1996). Al Dur al Siyasy li Jama'at al Masajeh fi Misr: Dirasat Hala li Niqabat al Ateba, (The Political Role of Interest Groups
  16. (2003). Al Ikhwan al Muslimeen: The Muslim Brotherhood, Military Review,
  17. (2006). Al Wefaq to field 19 candidates', The Voice of Bahrain,
  18. (2006). All Politics is Local', Egypt Today,
  19. (2000). America in Arab Mirror Images of America in Arabic Travel Literature, an Anthology doi
  20. An Elusive ELicccss',
  21. Analysts: Egyptian Gov't to curb MB further Political Gains', Al Mesryoon,
  22. (1996). Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival; the Politics of Ideas in the Middle East, doi
  23. (1996). Are the Latin Amencan Reforms Sustainable?, in (Eds) by
  24. (1990). Asad of Syba: The Struggle for the Middle East, doi
  25. (1997). Aspects of Structural Aqjustment in Africa and Egypt, Cairo: Cairo University, Centcr for Political Research and Studies. Pp 131-199. 220 El-Mahdi, A
  26. (2000). Assad's Legacy- S3ýda in Transition,
  27. (2002). AUbar al-Yawm
  28. (2005). Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance, Lynne Rienner. doi
  29. Back with a Vengeance', Al Ahram Weekly, 10-16 March, Issue No, 733,21005 qthý -)00. ý 'Band of Brother.,, ', The Guardian, December 237 'The Bar Association take Two', Al Ahram Weekly.
  30. (2003). Bridges, Bombs or Blusters?, Foreign Affairs. September October, Issue 83. Pp ? doi
  31. (1999). Bridging the Gap Between the Development Agendas and the Needs of the Grassroots: The Experience of Jordanian NGOs (Beirut).
  32. (2004). Bringing Politics Back In: Examining the Link between Globalization and Democratization, doi
  33. (2005). Brotherhood to 'fight' Mubarak's efforts to hand power to son',
  34. (2005). Can Egypt's Troubled Elections Produce a more, Democratic Future?, Carnegie Fndo\\, ment Centre for International Peace,
  35. (1962). Capitalism and Freedom, doi
  36. (2003). Challenge of Political Refonn: Egypt after the-Lraq War,
  37. Change at Hand', Al Ahram Weekly,
  38. (1998). Change in Ejzýýtian Economy, 1977-1997, Cairo Papers in
  39. Chronicle of a Result Foretold', The Economist,
  40. (1995). Civil Society and Democratization doi
  41. (1995). Civil society and Islam, in (Eds) by
  42. (1995). Civil Society and Prospects for Democratization in the Middle East,
  43. (2004). Civil society and the Uncivil State; Land Tenure Reform in Egmpt and the Crisis of Rural Livelihoods, Civil Society and Social Movements Programme, UN Research Institute for Social Development. May, Report No 9. 232 I Followiniz its Choubaky, A
  44. (2004). Civil Society Expert, Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, Al Ahram,
  45. (2004). Civil Society Exposed, the Politics of NGOs in Egypt,
  46. (2001). Civil Society, Community, and Democracy in the Middle East, in (Eds) by
  47. (2006). Clashes at Egypt Judicial Protest',
  48. (2006). Clashes Erupt as police attack demonstrators supporting Judges', The Daily Star,
  49. cný200508/24/enjz2oo5o824 204259. html 'Sameh Ashour: The boundaries of respect',
  50. (2005). com/itw/inf Morocco's Risin)z Islamist Challenge,
  51. (1994). Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and its Enemies, doi
  52. (2003). Conferences: Abdul Hafiz, A
  53. (1995). Counjjy Economic Memorandum: Egypt into the Next Century,
  54. (2002). Counter Revolution in Egypt's CountKyside-, Land and Farmers in the Era of Economic Refonn,
  55. (2005). Cracks in the Yemeni System, Middle East Report Online,
  56. (2002). Crisis of Leadership', doi
  57. (2006). Currciit Trends in the Ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, Joumal Current Trends in Islamist Ideology.
  58. (2004). Dcniocratisation in Gulf Monarchies: A New Challenge to the GCC, Middlc East Policy. doi
  59. Debating the Future', Al Ahram Weekly,
  60. (1994). Democracy without Democrats" The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World, doi
  61. (2002). Democratization in the Arab world? Emirs and Parliaments in the Gulf, doi
  62. (2004). Dilemmas of Democratization in the Middle East-, The Forward St Middlc East Policy, Fall, Vol 11. No 3. 227 Nonneman, G doi
  63. (2005). Does Democracy lead to an end of Terrorism?.,
  64. (1988). Domestic Politics, in (Eds) by Harris, L, Egypt; Internal Challenges and Regional Stability,
  65. (2004). Dr Hamzawy, A, Expert on Islamic Movements, University of Cairo,
  66. (1977). Du'at al Qudat, (Preachers not Judges),
  67. (1985). E-gyptian Politics under Sadat-, the Post-Populist Development of an Authoritarian Modernizing State, doi
  68. (1993). Economic and Political Liberalisation in the Middle East, London British Academy Press. 217 Norton. A
  69. (1999). Economic Crisis and the Policies of Reform in Egypt, doi
  70. (2004). Economic crisis loom over Egypt Campaigný, Iran Daily, September 4 th ý 2005. 238 'Economic Reform rs nse in Egypt',
  71. (1993). Economic Policy in Egypt; A breakdown in Reform Assistance,
  72. (1997). Economic Policy Reform in Egrypt,
  73. (1997). Economic Refon-n in a Changing Global EconoMy, OECD, Development Centre Working Papers, December, doi
  74. (2005). Economic Reform in Egypt, 2004-2005, paper presented at the annual BRISMES Conference,
  75. (2003). Eg, ýTt's Summer of Discontent, Middle East Report Online,
  76. (1993). Eg)Tt: Politics and Society,
  77. Egyl2tian PM suggests way to sideline Islamists',
  78. (2003). Egypt before and after September 11,2001: Problems of Political Transformation in a Complicated Intemational Setting, Report- Deutsches Onent Institute.
  79. (2000). Egypt during the Sadat years: doi
  80. (1990). Egypt Economy: The Pressing Issues, The Political Economy of Contemporary Egypt, doi
  81. (1989). Egypt from Nasser to Mubarak, a Flawed Revolution, doi
  82. (2006). Egypt journalist jailed for libel',
  83. (1991). Egypt: Alleviating Poverty during Structural Adjustment,
  84. (1987). Egypt: The Islamic Issue, Foreign Policy, doi
  85. Egypt's crawl from autocrqcy:, Opendemocracy,
  86. (1997). Egypt's Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment (ERSAP), doi
  87. (1992). Egypt's ERSAP: The Orthodox Recipe and The Altemative in (Eds) by Abdel Khalek,
  88. (1988). Egypt's Islamic activism in the 1980s, Third World Quarterly, doi
  89. (2006). Egypt's Judges in election protest',
  90. Egypt's New Govemment to Pursue Economic Liberalisation not Political Reform, Democracy Digest, Weekly News Bulletin,
  91. (2001). Egypt's Privatization Goes Nowhere, The Middle East Online, February, htt -'
  92. Egypt's ruling party pledges refon-n, BBC News, September 291h 2003. ýIh 'Egyptian court sentences AN, jiian Nour to five years', Daily Times,
  93. (2004). Egyptian Politics: The Dygarnics of Authoritarian Rule,
  94. (1991). EmployMent and Structural Adjustment: Egypt in the 1990s,
  95. (2004). Enduring authoritarianism, Comparative Politics 36,2: doi
  96. Engineers demand elections', Al Ahram Weekly,
  97. (2004). Examining the September II th Terrorist Attacks, Can Democrac and Economic Development purge the
  98. extends emergency law as crackdown on protestors continues lkhwanweb,
  99. (2003). Finance and
  100. (2004). Fonner Senior Member of the Muslim Brotherhood and now the leader of Hizb al Wasat (The Centrist Party),
  101. (2005). for the family, a fieEy warning for the world', The Guardian,
  102. (2006). Foreboding about the Future in Yemen, Middle East Report Online,
  103. (1998). Free Trade Agreement, an Egryptian Perspective in (Eds) by Galal, A
  104. (1996). From Accommodation to Confrontation; the Muslim Brotherhood in tile Mubarak Years,
  105. (1994). From National BourReois Development to Infitah:
  106. (2005). Gamal Mubarak takes credit for father's victoly',
  107. (2002). Garnal Mubarak; Successor Stojj in Egypt? Policy Watch, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. No 669,
  108. (2006). Generational Change and elite-d 'ven ref n iorms in the Kingdom (Sir William Luce Fellowship Paper, No 7), Middle East and Islamic Studies,
  109. (1990). gles for Egypt's Political Soul, doi
  110. Going it alone', doi
  111. (2005). Hizb al-Wasat and the Potential for Change in Egyptian Islamism Critique, doi
  112. II th
  113. (1995). IMF lending to Developing Countries, Issues and Evidence, doi
  114. (1996). Implementation Completion Report,. Egypt: Structural Adjustment Loan. Loan No.
  115. (2002). In the Shade of the Qur'an, (Translated and Edited by Adil Salahi) Vol 5; Surah 6, United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. Rahnerna, A (I 994),. Ploneers of Islamic Revival,
  116. (2005). Inheriting Syda- Bashar's Trial by Fire, doi
  117. (1996). Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modem Arab World, doi
  118. (2002). Interview with Condoleezza Rice by James Hardimz and Richard Wolfe', Financial Times,
  119. (2004). Interviews: Dr Choubaky, A, Expert in Islamism and Islamic Movements, Centre for Political and Strategic Studies, Al Ahram,
  120. (2006). Investigate election fraud, not judges',
  121. (1999). Islam and Democracy, Jordan and the Muslim Brotherhood,
  122. (1992). Islam by Profession, The Middle East,
  123. (2003). Islam without Fear; Egypt and the New Islamists, Cambridge; doi
  124. (1990). Islamic Fundamentalism and Eg gyptian Politics, doi
  125. (1996). Islamic Mobilisation and Political Change: The Islamist Trend in Egypt's Professional Associations, in (Eds) by
  126. (2001). Islamic Mobilisation: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, doi
  127. (1982). Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World. doi
  128. (2004). Islamism and Nationalism: The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism
  129. (2003). Islamism, Revolution and Civil Society, doi
  130. (2006). Islamist Movements and the Democratic Process in the Arab world: Exploriniz the Gray Zones- Camegie Endowment Centre for International Peace,
  131. (2002). Islamists and the Politics of Consensus, doi
  132. Islamists Forecast Harsher Crackdown, The Daily Star,
  133. (2004). Islarn, Charity, and Activism Bloomington:
  134. Issue'No, 5.92.200' 'Nazif pumps up the volume', Al Ahram Weekly. 2-8 February. Issue No. 780.2006. 'New tests for Egypt's opposition- embattled Nour puts hope in vote for J)arliament*,
  135. IV Consultation with the Arab Republic of Egypt. Public Information Notice (PIN)
  136. (2002). Jihad: The Trial of Political Islam, Belknap Press. doi
  137. (2002). Latin Amencan NGO's and the IFI's: the Quest for a South Detennined Aý! enda, in (Eds) by Scholte,
  138. (2005). limer circle in Syda hold power and perhaps peril',
  139. Local Councils in limbo',
  140. looks West for election tactics',
  141. (1998). Manhajivat a] Imam Hassan a] Banna wa madans al IkhxNan al Muslimeen. (The Methodology of the martyred Imam Hassan al Banna and the schools of the Muslim Brotherhood), Beirut, Al Risala Publishers.
  142. Meeting the Press'-, Al Ahram Weekly, 5-11 August, Issue No, 702, '1004. Monitors vow at open poll booths, The Voice of Bahrain,
  143. (2002). Mobilising Islam: Religion, Activism and Political Change in Egypt, _, doi
  144. (2001). Moderate Political Islamism as a Possible New Social Movement: The Case of EgvDt's Wasat (Center) Part (NlA: Cairo: American University in
  145. (1998). More than a Response to Islamism: The Political Deliberalisation of Egypt in the 1990s,
  146. (2004). Mubarak, Republican Heir Apparent, Middle East Online,
  147. (2006). Mubarak's reform promises backslide',
  148. (2006). Mubarak's son attacks Brotherhood'. Al Jazeera,
  149. (2006). Muslim Brotherhood: Egypt arrests members', The Mercury News, doi
  150. (2003). Muslim rulers asked to adopt democracy; US narrows choices',
  151. (1973). Nasser: A Political BiograpLiy,
  152. (2001). Nasser's Egypt, Arab Nationalism and the United doi
  153. (1964). Nationalism and Revolution in Egypt: The Role of the \Juslim Brotherhood, The Hague:
  154. NDP launches ca -ppaign',
  155. (2006). New Brotherhood Arrests', The Arabist, June I gth
  156. Newspapers: 'A Judicial Intifada', doi
  157. (2001). Nigabat al Muhandiseen: Bedayat Fard al Hirasa ala al Niqabat al Misriyya, (The Engineers Syndicate: The beginning of judicial control over Egyptian Syndicates)".
  158. (2005). No Representation without Taxation? Rents. Development and Democracy, doi
  159. (2005). Nour Jailed for 5 vears for forizeKy', www. arabnews. com,
  160. (1996). Occupational Groups and Political Participation in (Eds), by El Sayid, M, The Reality of Political Pluralism in Egypt,
  161. (2001). Of Islamist and Ballot Boxes, Rethinking the relatiOnship between Islamists and Electoral Politics, doi
  162. (1996). On PrivatIzatIon In EgýTt: With Referencc to the Experience of the Czech Rcpublic and Mexico
  163. One Way Street', Al Ahram Weekly,
  164. Open Debate', Al Ahram Weekly,
  165. (1998). org, mero 'mero07O3O2. htmI. 231 Schwedler,
  166. (1995). Over Stating the Arab state: doi
  167. Part 1: Will Egypt follow Syda's Precedent, Middle East Media and Research Institute, Inquiry and analysis,
  168. (2000). Part 2: Does Gamal Mubarak Have a Chance?, Middle East Media and Research Institute, Inquiry and Analysis,
  169. Party's old guard prevails', Al Ahram Weekly,
  170. (1998). Peace, Bread and Riots; Jordan and the Intemational Monetary Fund, doi
  171. Pealing with a New Reality' Al-Ahram Weekly
  172. Playing by the Rules', Al Ahram Weekly,
  173. (1989). Political Crisis and Political Conflict in Post
  174. (1993). Political Islam and American Foreign Policy,
  175. (2005). Political Islam and the New Global Economy, The Political Economy of an Egyptian Social Movement, The New Centennial Review 5.1. Pp III139. doi
  176. (1991). Political Islam-, Religion and Politics in the Arab world, doi
  177. Political Refonn in Bahrain: The End of the Road?,
  178. (2001). Political Strategies and Reu: ime Survival in Egypt,
  179. (1988). Political Terrorism and the State in the Middle East, Mansell Publishing Limited, London and New York. Jameelah, M (I 980),. Shaikh Hassan al Banna and al Ikhwan al Muslimeen, (Hassan al Banna and the Muslim Brotherhood), Mohammed Yusuf Khan and Sons.
  180. (2003). Politics and Economic Growth in Egypt, 1950-2000, Report, Centre for the Study of Developing Countries,
  181. (2004). Politics from Above, Politics from Below: The Middle East in the Age of Economic Reform,
  182. (2002). Politics of 'Un-Civil' Society in Egypt, doi
  183. (2002). Pon't Blink Jordan's Democratic Openinv, and Closing, Middle East Report Online,
  184. (2000). Popular Uprisings and Arab Democratization, doi
  185. (2002). Post Islamist Rumblings in Egypt;
  186. (2003). Promotinv Democratization can Combat Terrorism",
  187. (1998). Prospects for Middle Eastem and North Affican Economies: from Boom to Bust and Back?
  188. (2000). Public Investment in the Middle East and North Africa-, Towards Fiscal Efficiency, Development Policy Review, doi
  189. Quoted in 'reform in the Arab and Muslim world; Arab press reacts to national security advisor Condoleezza Rice's statements on democracy and freedom,
  190. (1992). Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: The Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid_Qutb, Beirut, doi
  191. (2006). rd Tg, )t - The Rise of Gamal Mubarak's Technocrats', allbusiness. com,
  192. (1995). Re-Emergence of the Muslim Brothers in Egnpt, Lancers Books,
  193. (2005). Refon-ning Egypt; in Search of a StrategY, International Crisis Group, Middle East
  194. (2004). Reform News Bulletin
  195. reform tops agrenda',
  196. (2005). Reforrn Retreats Amid Jordan'. s Political Ston-ns, Middle East Report Online,
  197. Regulating or Restraining? ', Al Ahrarn Weekly,
  198. (1991). Report on Economic Conditions in Egypt,
  199. (1996). Reports: Arab States 2002, httj2: //hdr. undp. oriz/reports/detail reports. c fm? vi ew=600 IMF,, Approves 24-month Stand-By Credit for Egypt, No 96/50,
  200. (1994). Rethinking Middle East Politics, doi
  201. (2004). Revolution and the Modem Islamic movement', Daily Times,
  202. (1998). Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution; Comparing Islamic Activism doi
  203. (2005). Rifaat EI-Said: Which way will he bend next?,
  204. (1973). Saint and Sufi doi
  205. (1996). Sayyid ()utb and Islamic Activism: A Translation and Critical Analysis of Social Justice in Islam, doi
  206. (1983). Sayyid Qutb: Ideologue of Islamic Revival, in (Eds) by Esposito, J, Voices of Resurgent Islam,
  207. (2002). Self-doomed to failure',
  208. (2006). Shia alliance wins Iraq elections',
  209. (2002). Six Days of War: doi
  210. (1967). Some Factors in the Decline of Sufi Orders in Modem Ejzyjpt, The Muslim World, doi
  211. Speaking in Tongues', Al Ahrarn Weekly,
  212. Speaking to the future' doi
  213. Speech on Freedom in Iraq, National Endowment Centre for Interriational Peace and Democracy,
  214. (2003). Speech on Iraq policy, Royal Banquet House, November I gth
  215. (2004). Stage set for political dyl2asty in Egypt? Signs may indicate Gamal Mubarak being groomed to succeed father',
  216. (2006). State targets opposition amid calls to extend emergency law', Reuters,
  217. Stomping on Democracy in Egypt', Ikhwanweb,
  218. Strange Bedfellows for the Bar', Al Ahram Weekly,
  219. (1997). Structural Adiustment and Poverty in (Eds) by EI-Mahdied,
  220. (1997). Structural Adjustment and Poverty in (Eds) by El-%Iahdied, A Aspects of Structural Adjustment in Africa and Egypt, Cairo: Cairo Uiiiversitv, Center for Political Research and Studies.
  221. (1999). Structural Adjustment in Egypt, The Case of Amiculture, Doctorate Thesis,
  222. (1993). Structural Refonn or Dutch Disease?, L'Egypte Contemporaine, July-October No.
  223. (2006). sweeps to election victoKy',
  224. (2001). Sylia Revolution from Above,
  225. (1995). The Accomodationists Speak; Goal and Strateizies of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt,
  226. (2002). The Age of Sacred Terror-, Radical Islam's War Aizainst America,
  227. The Amencan 'Advice' Tums the Closure into Assassination, ' AI-Safir (Beirut, Lebanon), Septcmber 91h. 2'002, FBIS Transcribed Text. 244 -- Zý-ý _'The Cabinet's New look',
  228. (2000). The America I Have Seen,
  229. (1995). The Arabist, August 26 th 2005, http: //arabi st. net/archives/2005/08/1 8/campaign -prom 1 ses/ 'Catching the Islamist Train',
  230. (2000). The Assad family and the Succession in Syda,
  231. (1960). The Constitution of Liberty, doi
  232. (2002). The Decline of Pluralism in Mubarak's Egypt, doi
  233. (2003). The Dygamics of Political Dissent in Egypt, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs,
  234. (1983). The EgA2t of Nasser and Sadat-, The Political Economy of Two Reý, Yimcs,
  235. (2001). The Egyptian Food Subsidy System Structure, Perfonnance, and Options for Refon-n,
  236. (2003). The Egyptian MilitaLy in Politics: Disengagement or Accommodation? '
  237. (2004). The Egyptian-Yemen War: Egyptian pers ectives On Guerrilla Warfare, Infantry Magazine,
  238. (2001). The Elusive Quest for Growth; Economists Adventures and Misadventurcs in the Tropics, doi
  239. (2003). The Future of Political Islam, doi
  240. (2004). The Future Secunty Environment
  241. (1998). The Growth of Poverty in Egypt, Egypt:
  242. (1996). The Gulf Monarchies: Testing Time,
  243. (1995). The Islamist Dilemma, the Political Role of Islamist Movements in the Contemporary Arab world, doi
  244. (1995). The Islamist Movement under Mubarak,
  245. (2005). The Key to Arab Refon-n: Moderate Islamists, Camegie Endowment Centre for International Peace and Democracy,
  246. (2004). The M)jh of Syda's Old Guard,
  247. (1972). The Making of the English Working Class, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  248. (1956). The Moslem Brethren, the Greatest of Modem Islamic Movements,
  249. (2006). The MuSlim Brotherhood and Egyptian Society', doi
  250. (1998). The Performance of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Egyptian Sypdicates: An alternative Formula for Reform?
  251. (2001). The Political Economy of Economic Refonn in the Middle East: The Challenge of Governance,
  252. (1999). The Political Economy of Food Subsidy Refon-n doi
  253. (1990). The Political Economy of Reform doi
  254. (2001). The Political Obstacles to Economic Refon-n in Sy.
  255. (1990). The Politics of Adjustment: Egypt and the IMF, 1987-1990, doi
  256. (1992). The Politics of Economic Adjustment, Intemational Constraints, Distributive Conflicts, _and the State,
  257. (2002). The Politics of EjZýt; State-Society Relationship,
  258. (2003). The Problem of US Credibility, Middle East Senes PromolLng Democracy in the Middle East", Camegie Endowment Centre for International Peace,
  259. (2004). The Problem xvith Coercive Democratization: The Islamist Response to the U. S. Democracy Refonn Initiative, World Joumal of Human Rights. doi
  260. (1995). The Process of Democratization in
  261. (2005). The Rich and the Brotherhood', Al Jazeera,
  262. (2005). The Right Way to Promote Arab Reforni, doi
  263. (1996). The Social Fund for Development: Assessment of Perforniance and Impact, Egýj)t-Human Development Report (Research Paper Senous). Egypt: Institute of National Planning and UNDP. 234 Kodmani.
  264. (1969). The Society of Muslim Brothers, doi
  265. (1998). The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement, 1928-1942,
  266. the speech made by President Hosni Mubarak in Menoufiya on Thursday 28 July announcing his intention to nominate himself for a fifth term, Al Ahram Weekly,
  267. (1991). The State and Public Policies in Egypt since Sadat, doi
  268. (2003). The Street and the Politics of Dissent in the Arab world, Middle East Report Online, doi
  269. (2002). The Trap of Liberalized Autocracy, doi
  270. (2004). The Unspoken Power: Civil-Military Relations and the Prospects for Refon-n- Brooking Institute,
  271. (1997). The WashinZon Consensu. s Revisited,
  272. (1986). Tinker, Tailor, and Textile Worker: Class and Politics doi
  273. (2005). Too Much Civil Society, Too little Politics? Egypt and other Liberalizing Arab Regimes, doi
  274. (2006). Top Egypt Judges face poll rebuke',
  275. (2003). Towards a New Social Contract in the Middle East and North Africa, World Bank Report Unlocking the Employment Potential doi
  276. (1987). Towards an apolitical role for the Egyptian Militaly in the management of development, Orient, 4, P 548 Website Articles: Aboul Enein,
  277. Trading on Promises', Al Ahram Weekly,
  278. Transcript of Bush's Speech to the American Ente1prise Institute,
  279. (1987). Understanding Arab Protest %loycnicnts,
  280. (2002). Unholy War, Terror in the Name of Islam, doi
  281. (1989). Unmly Colporatism; Associational Life
  282. (2005). US Democracy Promotion in the Arab Middle East, doi
  283. Violence mars round two', Al Ahrarn Weekly,
  284. (2004). Waiting for Godot- Repime Change without Democratization in the Middle East, doi
  285. (2002). Wbo wants democracy in the Arab world, "
  286. (2005). we are a power in Ejzypt',
  287. (1990). What Washington Means by Policy Refogn, in (Eds) by
  288. Who's Afraid of the Brotherhood', Al-Ahram Weekly,
  289. (2005). Winds of change blow throuLýh Egypt politics',
  290. (2000). World Development Indicators, doi
  291. ý41iting for Civil Space', Al Ahram Weekly,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.