Structural adjustment in Egypt : the case of agriculture

By Ibtissam Ibrahim Abdel Maksoud. El-Gaafarawi


This thesis assesses the appropriateness and effectiveness of the economic reform and structural adjustment programme adopted by Egypt in 1991. It also examines the main political and economic constraints of such policies. It argues that it is unlikely to provide sustainable or equitable growth. It also argues that privatisation\ud programmes in Egypt have a limited effect on improving levels of investment and growth. It stresses the need to encourage new investment to increase the productive\ud capacity of the Egyptian economy in order to generate sustainable growth. The thesis examines in particular, economic reforms in the agricultural sector. It focuses\ud on assessing price reforms so as to enquire how evenly distributed the benefits have been among farmers with different sizes of land holding. Those with big farms are\ud likely to gain more while very small farmers and the landless are likely to lose. Within agriculture the thesis assesses the impact of structural adjustment on Egypt's\ud agribusiness community. This sector is economically fragmented, has limited effectiveness and is politically weak regarding its participation and its influence on\ud economic policy. The thesis argues that the success Df this sector is based on the availability of a strong and effective state to provide the legal and regulatory.\ud infrastructure needed for an effective market economy, to abolish administrative obstacles and to enhance investors' credibility. In short, the thesis maintains that sustaining the economic reform is based on reviving productive investments and enhancing state capacity and democratisation

Publisher: School of Politics & International Studies (POLIS) (Leeds)
Year: 1999
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles



  1. 1990a. Derasat Tatbiqya leba'd Qadaya Al-Intagya fi El-Eqtisad El-Misty. (An Empirical Study of Some Production Aspects
  2. 1992. El-Tahreer El-Eqtisadi wa Qita' Azira'a. (Economic Liberalisation and the Agricultural Sector) Cairo: INP. (Qadaya Atalchteet
  3. 1994. "Egypt's ERSAP: The Orthodox Recipe
  4. 1994. The Role of the State: the Case of Egypt. Cairo: Economic Research Forum,
  5. 1995,1996.
  6. 1995. Oversatating the Arab State: Politics and Society
  7. 1996.
  8. 1996. Tagdeed el-Nizam el-Ektisadi wa el-Syasi fi Misr (Renewing the Economic and Political Systems in Egypt) two
  9. 1997. "El-Eslah el-Ektisadi: el-Farida El-Ga'iba." (The Economic Reform: the Absent Commandment) Cairo:
  10. 1997. Unemployment
  11. Adams Richard H. 1995. The Egyptian Food Subsidy System: Operation and Effects on Income Distribution. Paper presented in doi
  12. Amin, Gala!. 1982a. "El-Tahawol ela al-Infitah, el-Awamel el-Kharigaya" (Turning to
  13. Amin, Galal. 1982. "External Factors in the Reorientation
  14. and
  15. and Andres Solimano. 1992. "Economic Adjustment and Investment performance in Developing Countries: The doi
  16. and H. Khedr. 1991. "Assyassat el-Eqtisadya el-Eslahya fi Qita' el-Zyra'a fi •Misr.". (Economic Reform Policies in the Agricultural Sector) Le Egypte Contemporaine
  17. and Hassan Khedr. 1997. "Atawaguhat el-Mustaqbalya Lel-Tanmya Azyra'ya fi Misr fi Itar el-Mutaghayrat el-Eqtsadia el-Mahalia wa el-Eqlimia wa el-Dawlia." Cairo: MALR & PBDAC. Mu'tamar el-Takhteet el-Estrategy lel-Tanmya
  18. and Heba El-Laithy. 1996 . "Protecting Food Security for the Poor
  19. and International Cooperation. 1996. doi
  20. and Jacques Lecaillon. 1993. The Political
  21. and John Toye. 1991. Aid and Power: The World Bank and Policy-Based Lending (vol. 1: doi
  22. and M. Khan. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture in Egypt. Boulder/London:
  23. and Muhammed Helmi. 1992. "El-Ethtesmar el-Khas fi elZira'a el-Misria:
  24. and N. Shafik. 1992. "Reviving Privatè Investment in doi
  25. and R. Krenz. 1996. "Crop Production Responses to
  26. And Rajapatirana, S. 1993. Boom, Crisis, and Adjustment: The Macroeconomic doi
  27. and Roger Owen. 1983. doi
  28. and Sharafeldein, M.A. 1996. "Impacts of the Policy Reforms on Livestock and Feed
  29. and Szeftel, Morris, 1994. "Commentary: State, doi
  30. and W. Stoever. 1988. "Investment Promotion Policies in Sadat's Egypt: Lessons for less developed Countries."
  31. Ayubi, Nazih. 1991. The State and the Public Policies doi
  32. B. Webb, eds. 1992. Adjustment Lending Revised: Policies to Restore Growth. A
  33. Barkey, Henri J. 1992. "Introduction: Economic Reform
  34. Baylies, Carolyn. 1995. "Political Conditionality and Democratisation". Review doi
  35. Bird, Graham. 1995. IMF Lending to Developing Countries: Issues and Evidence. London and New York: Routledge and doi
  36. Bromley, Simon. 1995. "Making
  37. Brumberg, D. 1992. "Survival Strategies vs. Democratic Bargains: The Politics of Economic
  38. Cairo,
  39. Cooper, M. N. 1982. doi
  40. Cooper, M. N. 1983. "Egyptian State Capitalism in Crisis: Economic Polices
  41. D.C.:
  42. ed. 1989. Fragile Coalitions: the
  43. ed. 1989. Privatisation and Structural doi
  44. ed. 1990. Investment Policies in the Arab Countries.
  45. Eight
  46. El- doi
  47. El- Khawaga, Lila. 1995. "Macroeconomic Determinnts of Private Investment Empirical Study for
  48. El-Abram
  49. El-Beblawy, Hazeml 1996. "Le Role
  50. (1996). El-Mugtma' wa el-Dawla fi el-Watan el-Arabi fi zel elSyasat el-Rasmalya El-Gadida. "Society and the State in Arab Countries under the New Capitalist Policies." Cairo: Maktabet Madbouli.
  51. El-Samalouti, Ganat. 1995. "El-Eslah el-Mali fi Misr (Fiscal and Tax -Reform in Egypt: The Trade off between Economic
  52. elSyassia
  53. Evans, Peter. 1992. "The State as a Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded
  54. Fergany, Nadder. 1994. On The Impact of Economic Restrucutring on Human . Development and Proposed Strategy to Alliviate Poverty the Case of Egypt
  55. Fletcher, ed. 1996. Egypt's
  56. for National Planning. 1990. Derasa Talilya L'thar Asysat El-Eqtsadya wa el- Malya El-Nqdya ala Tatwer
  57. Galal, Ahmed. 1996. Savings and Privatisation. Cairo: Thc Egyptian Center
  58. Gamal Syam, eds. 1995. El-Ard wa el-Falah ft Misr: Dirassa ft Athar Tahreer el-Zira 'a
  59. Goletti, Francesco. 1996. Private-Sector Distribution and Market Pricing of Agricultural Inputs: Fertilisers,
  60. Gomaa, Abdel Salam. 1995.
  61. Gomaa, Salwa S. 1996. "The Civil Debate over Privatisation in Egypt:
  62. Gouili, Ahmed. 1992. "El-Gawaneb
  63. Handoussa, Heba. 1990. "Egypt's Investment Strategy, Policies, and Performance
  64. Hansen, Bent. 1991. The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: Egypt and Turkey. A doi
  65. Harrison, Kelly M. 1996. "Agricultural Processing, Marketing and Trade
  66. Hinnebusch, Raymond A. 1990. "The Formation of the Contemporary Egyptian State from Nasser
  67. (1996). Hwl el Tnalcudat el-Ektisadya wa el-Egtima'ya el-Gadida wa Bada'l Syasat el- Takayouf: el-Hala el-Misrya". (About the New Economic and Social Paradoxy and the Adjustment Policies: the Case of Egypt). In
  68. Ibrahim M. ed. 1990. The Political
  69. Ibrahim, Saad Eddin. 1996. Egyptian Businesspersons Images, Attitudes, and Roles. Cairo: Ibn Khaldoun Centre for
  70. Ilcram, K. 1981. Egypt: Economic Management in
  71. in doi
  72. Iowa doi
  73. Issawi, Ibrahim. 1982. "El-Tahawol ela el-Infitah, el-Awamel el-Dakhilya" (Turning to the Opening,
  74. Izak Atiyas, eds. 1996. Governance, Leadership, and Communication: Building
  75. Jursey:
  76. Kandil, Amani. 1994. "Socioeconomic Policies and Interst Groups
  77. KheirtEl-Din, H. 1997. "El-Tanmya Azra'ya fi Itar Syasat Etahrer El-Ektisadi wa Tahrir el-Tigarah El-Alamia". Cairo: MALR & PBDAC. Mu'tamar elTakhteet el-Estrategy
  78. Killick, Tony, ed. 1984. The
  79. Korayem, Karima. 1996. "El-Athr El-Ektsadya wa El-Egtima'ya leSayasat ElEsslah
  80. Krueger, Anne 0. 1993. Political Economy of Policy doi
  81. Lehman B. Fletcher. 1996. "Nature, Rationale and Accomplishments of
  82. Lessons. doi
  83. Lofgren, Hans. 1996. "Successful Adjustment and Declining Governance?
  84. London: doi
  85. Lopes, Jose da. 1989. "Policies of Economic Adjustment
  86. M. Abu-Mandour, M. 1996. El-Eqtisad Esyasy Lel-Eslah fi Misr: El-Bank Edawli...Esera 'a .. wa El-Falahoun. (The Political Economy to Reform in Egypt: World Bank....Agriculture ...and Farmers). Cairo: Markaz el-Mahroussa Lel-Behouth wa
  87. Mabro, R. doi
  88. MALR. 1990. Agricultural Census. Volume
  89. Mitchell, Timothy.
  90. Mohammed, Azazli. 1987. "The Role of the Fund and the World Bank in Adjustment and Development". In El-Naggar Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies
  91. MOP. 1992. El-Kheta el-Kamsya el-Thaltha Lel-Tanmya el-Ektsadya wa elEgtma'ya,1992/93-1996/97. (The Third
  92. MOP. 1997. The Forth Five Year Plan (1997/98-2001/2002). Newspapers Abram Newspaper (Arabic)290
  93. Mossaad, Nevine. 1996. "The Process of Privatisation in
  94. N.J.: doi
  95. Nour, Mahmud.1992. El-E'timan Azira'i
  96. one. doi
  97. Oxford: doi
  98. Political
  99. Rahman, Husni, H. 1992. "El-Athar el-Iqtisady lelIthtithmarat El-Hokoumya wa Qita' El-'Amal fi el-Zera'a wa Esteslah
  100. Richards, Alan. 1995. The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Agricultural Development in the Near East Region. Cairo: Economic Research Forum.
  101. Sadowski, Yaliya M. 1991. Political Vegetables? Businessman and Bureaucrate in the
  102. Samak, Nagwa. 1996. "Etakhsisia fi el-Eqtissad El-Misry." (Privatisation of the Egyptian Economy). In Alia el-Mandi. Parteners in Development: Political and Social Aspacts of Economic Reform in Egypt. Cairo: Centre for the
  103. Sarris, Alexander II.. 1992. Structural Adjustment and Agricultural Development in Egypt: Policies, prospectives and Options. in Thlil el-Syasat el-Zera'ya fi Gonzhuryat Misr el-Arabya.
  104. Schadler, Susan. 1996. "To What Extent have IMF Programmes
  105. Shafik, Nimat. 1992a. "Private Investment and Public
  106. Shafik, Nimat. 1992b. "Modeling
  107. Shihata, Ibrahim. 1991. The World Bank in a Changing World. Dordrecht: doi
  108. Shihata, Ibrahim. 1993. "Nhwa El-Eslah El-Shamel." Toward Total Reform. Cairo:
  109. Shihata, Ibrahim. 1995. "Wasyati li-Biladi" My Legacy to my Country Cairo: Ibn Khaldoun Centre & Dar
  110. Singh, Ajit. 1994. "State Intervention and the "Market-Friendly" Approach to Development: A Critical Analysis of
  111. Sinha, Radha, 1995. "Economic Reform in Developing doi
  112. Sinhg, Ajit, 1994. The State, Markets and Development: Beyond the Neo-classical Dichotomy. doi
  113. Sinhg, Ajit, 1994. The State, Markets and Development: Beyond the neoclassical Dichotomy. Aldershot doi
  114. Springborg, R. 1989. Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation
  115. Stallings, Barbara. 1992. "International Influence on Economic Policy: Debt,
  116. Sulivan, Denis J. 1990. The Political Economy
  117. Taylor, Lance. 1988. Varieties of Stabilisation Experience: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics doi
  118. (1982). The Open Door Economic Policy in Egypt: Its Contribution to Investment and Its Equity Implications."
  119. (1980). The Political Economy of Nasserism: A study in employment and income distribution policies in urban Egypt, 1952-1972. Cambridge: doi
  120. The World
  121. The World Bank, 1997. Arab Republic of Egypt; Country Economic Memorandun.i. Egypt: Issues
  122. The World Bank. 1993. "Arab Republic of Egypt: An Agricultural
  123. The World Bank. 1993a. doi
  124. University doi
  125. Wahba, Mahmoud. 1994. El-Rasmalia El-Mastya El-Gadida wa Bai 'El-Skarikat Lel Aganeb,: The new Egyptian Capitalism and the Selling of Companies to Foreigners
  126. Wahba, Murad M. 1993. "The Nationalistion of the IMF: The Nature and Evolution of the Official Discourse on Economic
  127. Washington DC.: The World Bank.279 Corbo, doi
  128. Waterbury, J. 1983. The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political doi
  129. Waterbury, John. 1989. "The Political Management of
  130. Wilson, Graham K. 1990. Business and
  131. World. doi
  132. York: doi
  133. Zaki, Muheb. 1995 . Civil Society and Democratisation in Egypt, 1981-1994. Cairo: Akonrad-Adenauer-Stiftung and
  134. Zaki, Ramzi. 1993. El-Libralya el-Mustabeda. Cairo:

Please contact us if you think this content is not Open Access according to the BOAI definition.

Submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.