Location of Repository

The influence of yarn production and processing variables on loop distortion in plain knit fabrics

By John Stephen Haigh


After reviewing past work into the geometry of the symmetrical idealised plain knit loop, an account is given of the present knowledge of loop distortion, which represents one of the major problem areas of the knitting industry. The shortcomings of this knowledge are shown to be that, although a large number of processing variables have been demonstrated to be associated with loop\ud distortion, there have been no systematic studies of the defect and there have been virtually no attempts to explain it in terms of fundamental physical characteristics of the yarn. \ud \ud Eleven yarn production and processing variables are examined within the framework of factorially designed experiments. The influence of these independent variables is statistically related both to ranked levels of loop distortion and to values of yarn physical characteristics. The two latter groups of data are also inter-related\ud by rank correlation.\ud \ud It is shown that loop distortion is dependent upon at least three yarn characteristics which, in turn, are dependent upon particular production and processing variables. These three are yarn bending hysteresis, bending rigidity, and count regularity. The greater propensity for wool to distort in comparison to acrylic is explained in relation to these characteristics, and to their different changes during processes such as steam setting and package dyeing.\ud \ud The work is finally reviewed both from the point of view of the manufacturer, who wishes to be able to predict the likelihood that a particular yarn will cause distortion, and the textile technologist who is not only interested in choosing the optimum yarn production conditions for minimum distortion, but would like to improve the fabric appearance by changes or additions to established production routes

Publisher: School of Design (Leeds)
Year: 1987
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:477

Suggested articles



  1. A doi
  2. (1958). A Property of a Buckled Elastic Rod" doi
  3. A. doi
  4. A. et al. "A Non-Parameteric Method for the Statistical Evaluation of Sensory
  5. Abbott, G.M. and Grosberg, P. "Measurement of Fabric doi
  6. al. doi
  7. Ammonia
  8. (1955). An Engineering Approach to Jersey Fabric Construction" doi
  9. Analysis doi
  10. and doi
  11. and Postle, R. "An Energy Analysis of the Mechanics of Weft Knitted Fabrics by means of Optimal Control Theory. Part I: The Nature of Loop Interlocking in the Plain doi
  12. Aspects doi
  13. Benson, doi
  14. Berndt,
  15. Bodenschatz, S. "The Effect of Bending Resistance
  16. Brown, T.D., Mills, J.H. and Hamilton, R.J. "Rib/Plain Interactions
  17. Buhler, G. Bodenschatz, S. and Schatz, A "Ermittlung
  18. Chapman, B.M. "An Apparatus for Measuring Bending and
  19. Davies 0.L., "The Design
  20. de Jong, S and Postle, R. "Energy Optimization Methods in Fabric Mechanics Mechanics doi
  21. Dimensional doi
  22. Dobson, doi
  23. F.
  24. Fabrics doi
  25. Filament Yarns" J. Text. Inst. 1974
  26. Footrule doi
  27. (1953). Fundamental Aspects of the Design of Knitted Fabrics" doi
  28. (1947). Geometrical Principles Applied to Vie Design of Functional Fabrics"
  29. (1979). Haigh,
  30. Haigh, J.S. "The Influence of
  31. Henshaw, D.E. "Knitting of Self-Twist Yarn" Text. Inst. and Ind. 157, (May
  32. Hepworth,
  33. Hepworth, R.B. "The Dimensional and
  34. Hepworth, R.B. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Leeds, 1971
  35. Hosiery Yarns and Fabrics"
  36. I.W.S.
  37. Inst.
  38. IWTO 8/66
  39. J., doi
  40. J.C. et al. "An Investigation into Bending and Torsional Rigidities of Some Fibres", J.
  41. J.S. "The Influence of Chlorine and Hercosett Dosage Levels on Loop Distortion in Plain Knit Botany Fabrics"
  42. Jong,
  43. Karrholm, doi
  44. Kendall,
  45. Kendall, M.G. "Rank Correlation Methods" 3rd Ed. 1962, pp.144-161, Griffin & Co. Ltd.
  46. Kerley, L.A. doi
  47. Knapton, J.J.F. and doi
  48. Kramer, A. "A Rapid Method for Determining Significance of
  49. Kramer, A. "Revised Tables for Determining Significance
  50. Le Centre de Recherches de la Bonneterie de Troyes
  51. Livesey, R.G. and Owen, J.D. "Cloth Stiffnes
  52. Ly, N.G. "The Contribution of Fibre Diameter Distribution to the Bending Rigidity of Yarns" J. Text. Inst. 1983 74, 228-230 doi
  53. Ly, N.G. and Denby, E.F. "The Bending doi
  54. M.P.
  55. Meredith, R., "The Torsional Rigidity of doi
  56. Mertens, J.J. "The
  57. Method doi
  58. Mitchell, T.W. and Feughelman, M. "The
  59. Morton, W.E. and Permanyer, F. "The
  60. Munden, D.L. "Dimensional Stability of Plain Knit Fabrics" J. Text. Inst. 1960, 51, doi
  61. (1978). of doi
  62. Parker, R "Cockling in Fully Fashioned Garments" Knitting Industry Technical Review, 1981, 1, 25
  63. Pierce, doi
  64. (1969). Pittner, J.J. "Cockling in
  65. Plain doi
  66. Postle, doi
  67. R. "Dimensional Stability of Plain Knitted Fabrics" J. Text. Inst. 1968, 59, 65 doi
  68. Robinson,
  69. Robinson, G.A. and Green, M.V. "Cockling in
  70. Robinson, G.A.,
  71. Robinson, G.A., Cawood, M.P. and
  72. Robinson, G.A., Cawood, M.P. and Dobson, D.A. "Cockling in
  73. Scientificand
  74. Shanahan, W.J. and Postle, R. "A Theoretical Analysis of the Plain Knitted Structure" Text. Res. J. 1970, 40, 656 doi
  75. Shanahan, W.J. and Postle, R. J. Text. Inst. 1974, 65, 562 doi
  76. Shanahan, W.J. and Postle, R. Text. Res. J. 1975, 45, 87
  77. Shanahan, W.J. and Postle,R. "A Theoretical Analysis
  78. Skelton, J. "The Measurement of the Torsional Elastic Recovery of Filaments" J. Text. Inst. 1965 56, 1443
  79. (1934). Spirality in Knitted Fabrics" doi
  80. (1960). Spirality in Weft Knitted Fabrics" Hosiery Res.
  81. Statistical Techniques in Technological Research" 1968 pp. 214-217 Methuen & Co. Ltd, London
  82. The doi
  83. the Bending Modulus of Monofils" J. doi
  84. (1975). The Effect of Winding Conditions and Autoclave Conditions on the Loop Distortion of Self-Twist Yarns" I.W.S. Report No. F.A.C.T.
  85. The Geometry and Dimensional Properties of doi
  86. The Geometry of a Plain Knitted Loop"
  87. (1952). The Geometry of Knit Fabrics Made of Staple Rayon And Nylon and its Relationship to Shrinkage in Laundry" doi
  88. (1952). The Geometry of Plain and Rib Knit Cotton Fabrics and its Relation to Shrinkage in Laundry" doi
  89. The Influence of Yarn Regain on Cockling in Single Jersey Fabrics" I.W.S. Report No. F.A.C.T. 361
  90. the Mechanics of a doi
  91. (1954). The Relationship of the geometry of Plain Knit Cotton Fabric to its Dimensional Change and Elastic Properties" doi
  92. (1914). The Science of Knitting"
  93. U.K. Patent GB doi
  94. Williams, V.A. "Loop Distortion or Stitch Distortion in Knitwear" C.S.I.R.O. Division of Textile Industry, Geelong, Australia. Internal Report, May 1986

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.