The investigation of the issue of innovation in Brazilian agriculture and its transformation into agribusiness and development for the country is considerably intricate task. For such are reported contradictions scenarios in the formation of agribusiness, the parallelism in the traditional agricultural structures and dual-technology sector and challenges for Brazilian development. It is based on research in the dynamics of neo-Schumpeterian theory in which profound transformations and restructurings occur because of complex interdependencies, competition, economic growth and structural change, being innovation the link between structural components (actors, networks and institutions) System innovation (SI) for sectors, regions and countries. The discussions are focused on the participation of the state as a strategic agent of SI and of the dynamics of development. It was concluded that although there may be significant advances in production systems classified as modern, evolving Policies ST & I, the systematic organization and coordination of the National Agricultural Research System (SNPA) and levels of evolution of public spending on R & D in agriculture they no longer ensure reduction in the structural-technological dualism relevant obstacles to the formation of a SI in agribusiness. And yet, in the dynamics of a market economy the structural components of agribusiness tend to invest in innovations in competitive segments linked to exports. Therefore, is necessary the presence of State, which it is fundamental agent in evolutionary economics, linking actors, networks, institutions, seeking to develop knowledge, mobilizing resources, creating markets, legitimizing and influencing the direction of research and development of positive externalities, otherwise there will only be uneven economic growth
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