This paper describes the features, priorities and directions of state policy in nanotechnological development in the Russian Federation. The basic concepts of nanoeconomics in the modern economic theory were defined, these are: utilitarian, evolutionary, institutional and behaviorist ones. The content of the strategic multi-level process as a component of nanoindustrialization within the VI technological mode based on a structural model of the global economic system and metaindustrial function was disclosed. The most important area of nanoindustrialization (as identified by the author) is the development of economic genetics and analysis of human activity on the nanoscale level (operations, activities, methods and movements). A powerful technological breakthrough and modernization of the Russian economy in the conditions of formation and growth of the VI technological mode are possible in form of organization of large-scale studies on the evolution, strategy and technology of social relations development that are adequate to the specifics of the new socio-economic structure
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