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Pakistani Muslim communities in Britain and Germany : informal familial care of elders and processes of social exclusion

By Sheher Banu Murtuja

Abstract

This thesis explores processes of social exclusion within Pakistani Muslim communities in Britam and Germany through the symbolic act of caring for one's elders. In particular social exclusion is explored through individual perceptions of what it means to be included or excluded with reference to their experiences and expectations of informal familial care Pakistani Muslim identities in diaspora are maintained, in part, through the continual exercise of Islamic and Pakistani cultural symbols. These symbols also serve to construct and sustain community boundaries,\ud distinguishing 'us' (Pakistani Muslims) from 'them' (non-Muslim White British and Germans). Hierarchical structures based on gerontocratic principles, aligned with the importance of family, and ethics of izzath, result in widespread beliefs amongst Pakistani Muslim communities that 'we' look after our elders and 'they' do not. As a\ud result familial care of elders has come to be seen as an integral symbol of 'Pakistani Muslim' identity in diaspora S uch symbolic value results in the care relationship\ud between elders and their kin being subject to Islamic and Pakistani cultural understandings of 'good' and 'bad'. Whilst these moral assertions have the potential to exclude, individual experiences, understandings and perceptions of them differ. Through an exploration of these experiences this study seeks to provide a grounded\ud understanding of social exclusion.\ud \ud Based on qualitative empirical data, consisting of 43 interviews, 26 of which were conducted in Germany, and 17 in Britain, the research advocates a re-configuration\ud of the emphasis placed upon structurally constructed thresholds of social exclusion. Through grounded accounts of the care relationship the thesis puts forward an\ud alternative typology of care, which takes into account the ethics of izzath, khidmath, reciprocity and the corresponding structural frameworks of Islam and Pakistani\ud culture. The research demonstrates that the diasponc Pakistani Muslim community's attempts at continuation and unity have the potential to exclude where conditions\ud and values of such perpetuation are not met. However, such thresholds of exclusion are fluid, subject to individual resource and identity negotiations that call into\ud question exclusion based upon 'indisputable' moral authorities

Publisher: School of Sociology and Social Policy (Leeds)
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:546

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  3. 16 According to Eurostat (2002), the number of non-European Union nationals in Germany is comparable to that in Austria. ' Made up of the Social Democrat Party and the Free Democratic Party.
  4. 2.2 The Muslim Community: A Historical Overview 'Muslim communities' are conceptualised
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  6. 2.6 Boundaries Within Boundaries In addition to distinctions between non-Muslims and Muslims, terminology of 'them'
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  8. 21 Similarly, Durkheim has previously argued that social integration and social unity are two of the most
  9. 21 The process
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  11. 28 Polls have shown that such active recruitment has not cost parties their White votes, a concern
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  14. 31 This Act regulates the rights of all people entenng or living on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany who are not German citizens (Liedtke, 2002).
  15. 32 These measures were temporally limited to those eligible
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  17. 4.2 Pakistani Muslim Communities: Case Studies of Social Exclusion and Care There are four main reasons why this research focused upon familial care relationships within Pakistani Muslim communities m Britain and Germany The first is
  18. 4.5 Choosing Methods Within the remit of qualitative research numerous methodological strategies enable the engagement of individual perspectives. The two methodologies that had the potential to achieve the
  19. 4.5.1 In depth Semi-Structured/Narrative Interviews The approach utilised in the construction of mterviews was m part semi-structured and in part elicited narrative accounts (Jones and Rupp, 2000). As far as possible questions were structured in a manner
  20. 4.5.3 Pilot Study 'Whilst questiomng respondents about concepts such as izzat and khtdmat may be considered leadmg, analysis of respondent narratives focused specifically upon respondent understandings and definitions figure placed
  21. 4.6.2
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  27. 5.3 A Question of Citizenship? The degree to which an individual is formally established within a particular country is
  28. 5.3.1 British Citizenship British citizenship was not a formal legal status until the 1940's. Prior to this, those born on 'British temtory' were considered
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  30. 5.4.2 Social Security Provisions in OldAge
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  219. Page 103Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany
  220. Page 105Pakistani Communities in
  221. Page 110Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany: The Historical Comparative Context (many of whom did not initially intend to stay (Nonneman, 1996, Nielsen, 1995)), with an incentive to remain and bring their families to
  222. Page 113Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany: The Historical Comparative Context Throughout the 1970's and 1980's legislative policy in Germany was aimed at the assimilation or return
  223. Page 115Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany The Historical Comparative Context their economic and personal life. During the course of their
  224. Page 120Pakistani Communities in
  225. Page 127Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany The Historical Comparative Context to get (Bommes
  226. Page 138Pakistani Communities in Britain and Germany: The Historical Comparative Context 5.5.3 British and German Welfare Policies: Presumptions of Social
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  232. Page 47Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship individual's life course (Perri, 1997; Berghman, 1995). This said, the expenence of exclusion is not necessanly
  233. Page 52Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship Just as the likes of Murray (1995, 1988) and Mead (1992), rest the onus of
  234. Page 54Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship At a European level, conceptualisations of social exclusion focus upon the
  235. Page 56Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care
  236. Page 64Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship Social capital generated through familial and community networks of care is
  237. Page 69Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship politics of recognition (Williams, 2000) does not go far enough
  238. Page 70Social Exclusion, Social
  239. Page 71Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship Emotional care is a very personal form
  240. Page 73Social Exclusion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship completely explained by, an individual's own rationalisations of them (Giddens, 1979, see also Maclean and Eekebar, 1997).
  241. Page 74Social Exciugion, Social Capital and the Informal Care Relationship According
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  260. Respondents express a need to perpetuate Islamic, and to a lesser extent, Pakistani cultural, norms and values, as a
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  295. The corporatist welfare model, held to be
  296. The current New Labour government places a large degree of importance upon
  297. The German welfare state not only
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  301. The Pakistani Muslim focus of the research provides considerable impetus for the ontological stance of the study.
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  306. Their migration as p olitical a sylum seekers saw the majority of the male
  307. Through this analysis, this chapter provides
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  320. What is going to happen, only Allah knows, whether we even get a pension, who knows after 20 or 30 years what the situation of Europe will be, they could turn around and say we will not give you
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