Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The role of castles in the political and military history of the Crusader States and the Levant 1187 to 1380

By Bengt Kristian Molin


This thesis deals with the various functions of Latin and\ud Armenian fortifications in Cilician Armenia, Greece,\ud Cyprus, Syria and Palestine between 1187 and c.1380.\ud Offensively, such structures were needed as starting\ud points for both land based and naval campaigns into enemy\ud territory, and could thereafter be used to colonize and\ud suppress newly acquired land. Defensively, individual\ud strongpoints could also prevent Greek, Bulgar or Muslim\ud attackers from making any permanent conquests, whilst at\ud the same time protecting local farmers and traders against\ud the ravages of war. In addition, they were frequently\ud relied on to maintain internal security and to deter\ud hostile locals from rebelling against their overlords. The\ud security provided by fortifications meant that they also\ud fulfilled a wide variety of non-military functions as\ud prisons, residences, courthouses and administrative\ud centres. Most importantly, however, they enabled heavily\ud outnumbered Latin newcomers to conquer large parts of the\ud eastern Mediterranean without having to match their\ud opponents man for man, or risking a direct confrontation\ud with numerically superior invasion forces. These factors\ud made castles and urban fortifications vital to the entire\ud crusading movement, and they will therefore be discussed\ud in great detail, with reference to a variety of\ud contemporary chronicles and documents. In addition,\ud extensive use will be made of archaeological and\ud architectural evidence, for the design of an individual\ud fortress was clearly determined by the numerous military,\ud economic and political functions which it was expected to\ud fulfil

Publisher: School of History (Leeds)
Year: 1995
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1931-41).
  2. (3 vols., Paris 1958-61).
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 481-513.
  6. A History of the Crusades, (3 vols., Cambridge 1951-54).
  7. A Register of the Cartulary of the Cathedral of
  8. A.
  9. (1933). account of journey to Mount Athos summarised in A. Soloviev, 'Histoire du Monastère russe au Mont-Athos'
  10. Actes relatifs a la principauté de Morée,
  11. al-Makrizi,
  12. al-Makrizi, Histoire des Sultans
  13. (1913). Albon (marquis d'),
  14. Alishan, L.M. , Sissouan ou l'Arméno-Cilicie, (Venice 1899) Andrews, K.,
  15. Anatomy of a Crusade, (Philadelphia 1986).
  16. and
  17. and the Walls of Ascalon', Q, CXVI (1984), 133-47.
  18. Angold,
  19. Anti quitates Italicae Medi!
  20. at
  21. at Pilgrims' Castle ('Atlit): the Faubourg and
  22. Ayalon, D. , 'Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army' Bulletin of Oriental
  23. B., 'Zur Eroberung Thessalonikes im Herbst
  24. Balard, M. , 'L'activité commerciale en Chypre
  25. Balard, M., 'The Genoese
  26. Bar Hebraeus, The Chronogra phy of Gregory Abu'l Fara.j, the Son of Aaron, the Hebrew Physician Commonl y Known as Bar Hebraeus,
  27. Benvenisti, M, The Crusaders in
  28. Boase, TS.R., 'Military Architecture
  29. Bon, A, 'Forteresses médiévales de la
  30. Bon, A., La Morée fran gue: recherches historigues, topog raphigues
  31. (1978). Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research,
  32. Cahen,
  33. Canard, M., 'Le Royaume d'Arménie-Cilicie et les Mamelouks jusqu'au traité de 1285', Revue des
  34. (1891). Chroni ques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi,
  35. (1886). Chronique de l'Ile de Ch
  36. Constable Sempad, La Chronigue
  37. Continuation de Guillaume de T yr de 1229 a 1261, dite du manuscrit de Rothelin,
  38. (1915). Cronica Antica di Venetia, short extract in J.K. Fotheringham, Marco Sanudo, Conqueror of the Archipelago,
  39. (1915). Cronica del Trivisano della Citta di Venezia, short extract in J.K. Fotheringham, Marco Sanudo, Conqueror of the Archi pelago,
  40. Crusaders,
  41. Crusaders' Castles of the
  42. Cyprus,
  43. D. Winfield, Byzantine Fortifications: an
  44. de
  45. de Sandoli, in Itinera
  46. defenses
  47. (1913). Descri ption de toute l'isle de Cypre,
  48. Despotate of Epirus,
  49. Deutsche
  50. (1962). Documents chypriotes des archives du Vatican (XIVe et XVe siècles,
  51. (1969). Documents nouveaux servant de preuves a l'histoire de l'Ile de Chypre sous le rè gne des princes de la maison de Lusi
  52. du
  53. (1964). Dunbar,
  54. E.
  55. E.G. , 'Etude sur la Topographie de
  56. ed.
  57. ed. E. Langlois, (2 vols., Paris 1886-1905) Nouvelles preuves de l'histoire de Chypre sous le règne des princes de
  58. (1985). Edbury, P.W., ed., Crusade and Settlement,
  59. Edwards,
  60. Edwards, R.W. , 'The Crusader Donjon at Anavarza
  61. emperor: various letters sent to Innocent III and the west,
  62. Enlart,
  63. entrées des châteaux des croisés en Syrie
  64. Fedden, R. , and J. Thomson, Crusader Castles, (London 1957).
  65. (1977). Feudal Institutions as revealed in the Assizes of Romania; the Law Code of Frankish Greece'
  66. Folda, J.
  67. Forey, A.J., 'The Military Order of
  68. Frankish Architecture in Greece', Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects, XXXI (1923-24),
  69. Frech, F., 'Die armenischen Burgen', Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu
  70. Geanakoplos, D.J. ,
  71. Geanakoplos, D.J. , 'Greco-Latin Relations on the Eve
  72. Gesta Re g is Henrici Secundi Abbatis,
  73. Godfrey, J., 1204: the Unhol y Crusade, (Oxford
  74. Gottwald, J., 'Die Burg Til im sudöstlichen Kilikien', BZ, XL (1940), 89-104.
  75. Gottwald, J., 'Die Kirche und
  76. Gough, M. , 'Anazarbus (Anavarza)' , Anatolian Studies, II,
  77. Grabois,
  78. H.,
  79. Hamilton and D. Jacoby, (London 1989),
  80. Harper, R., and D. Pringle, 'Belmont Castle: a Historical Notice and Preliminary Report
  81. (1948). Henry of Valenciennes, Histoire de l'em pereur Henri de Constantinople,
  82. Histoire
  83. Holt, P.,
  84. (1978). Honorius III: Regesta Honorii papae III,
  85. in
  86. Inalcik, H. , 'The Ottoman Turks and the
  87. Irwin, R., The
  88. italien
  89. J.,
  90. J.K. , Marco Sanudo, Conqueror of the Archi
  91. J.T.
  92. Jacoby, D. , 'The Encounter of
  93. Jerusalem:
  94. Johns, C.N., A Guide to 'Atlit,
  95. K., Der Deutsche Orden
  96. Kamal
  97. (1897). L'Estoire de la uerre sainte., ed G. Patis,
  98. La
  99. (1882). La Con guéte de Constantinople,
  100. Lady
  101. Latin
  102. Latrie, (Paris 1871). L'Estoire d'Eracles empereur et la con queste de la terre d'Outremer, RHCOc.
  103. Le Trésor des chartes d'Arménie, ou cartulaire de la chancellerie ro
  104. LePape Clement VI et les affaires d'Orient (1342-1352), (Paris 1904).
  105. Lettres pontificales concernant l'histoire de la Petite
  106. (1911). Livre de la conqueste de la princée de 1'Amorée: Chronique de Morée
  107. Lock, P.,
  108. Lock, P., 'The Frankish Tower
  109. Longnon,
  110. Longnon, J., 'Problèmes
  111. Longnon, J., Les Coinpagnons c1e Villehardouin: recherches
  112. Luke, H., 'The
  113. Luttrell, A.,
  114. Luttrell, A., 'Greek Histories translated and compiled for Juan Fernandez
  115. Luttrell, A., 'Intrigue, Schism and Violence among the Hospitallers of Rhodes, 1377-1384', Speculum, XLI
  116. Luttrell, A., Latin Greece, the Hospitallers and the Crusades, 1291-1440, (London 1982), containing 'La
  117. (1192). Marshall, C., Warfare in the Latin
  118. Mas Latrie,
  119. Mayer, H.E., The Crusades,
  120. Megaw, A.H.S. , 'Supplementary
  121. Megaw, A.H.S., 'The Arts in Cyprus: B Military Architecture, in HC, IV (1977), 196-207.
  122. Migne,
  123. Miller, W., The Latins in the Levant:
  124. Muller-Wiener, W., Castles
  125. Muntaner, Ramon,
  126. Muratori,
  127. Nerses Balientz, short extract in L.M.
  128. Nicolau
  129. of
  130. Oxford
  131. P., 'Le Château de Servantikar en
  132. P., 'The End of Hohenstaufen Rule in Syria', Bulletin of the Institute
  133. Pachymeres, George, De
  134. (1873). Pere grinatores medii aevi q uator,
  135. Petersen, M. Dow and C. Singer, 'Qal'at Jiddin: a Castle of the Crusader and Ottoman
  136. Philip Mousket, Chroni gue Rimée,
  137. Philip of Mézières,
  138. Philip of Mézières, Le Son ge du vieil pèlerin, extracts in L. de Mas Latrie, Histoire de l'Ile de Ch ypre sous le règne des princes de la maison de
  139. Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick II
  140. Prawer, J., The Latin Kingdom
  141. Pringle, D.,
  142. Pringle, D., 'A thirteenth century
  143. Pringle, D., 'Magna Mahumeria (al-Bira): the Archaeology of a Frankish
  144. Pringle, D., 'Survey of Castles in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1989: Preliminary Report' , Levant,
  145. R.W.,
  146. Riley-Smith,
  147. Riley-Smith, J.S.C., The Feudal Nobilit y
  148. Robert of Clan, La
  149. Robinson, F.C.R. , and
  150. ROL,
  151. Rome
  152. Rubió y
  153. (1947). Rubió y Liuch,
  154. Rüdt de Collenberg, W., Familles
  155. Runciman, S., Mistra, (London 1980).
  156. S., 'The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia', in jj , II (1962), 630-59.440
  157. Sanudo, Marino (Torsello, or the Elder),
  158. Sanudo, Marino (Torsello, or the Elder), Istoria del regno di Romania
  159. Sauger, Robert, Histoire nouvelle des anciens ducs de l'Archipel, (Paris 1699), extract in J.K. Fotheringham, Marco Sanudo,
  160. (1955). Setton,
  161. sites,
  162. Sterns, I., 'The Teutonic Knights in the
  163. Stuttgart,
  164. T.A.H. Mogabgab, (Nicosia 1941). Wilibrand of
  165. t4as
  166. The
  167. The Arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes', in IV (1977), 208-50.
  168. The Crusades of 1239-41 and their Aftermath' , Bulletin of
  169. The Institutions of the Kingdom of Cyprus', in ,
  170. The Kingdom of C yprus
  171. the Knights 1-lospitallers of Rhodes in
  172. Thorau, P., The Lion of Egypt: Sultan
  173. Tibble, S., Monarchy and
  174. To Chronikon tou Moreos:
  175. Topping, P., 'The Morea,1311-1364' and 'The Morea,
  176. (1906). Traquair, R. , 'Mediaeval Fortresses of the North-Western Peloponnesus', ABSA, XIII,
  177. U. and M.C. Lyons, with
  178. (1965). Un noveau texte du traité De constructione castri Saphet'
  179. und
  180. Urban V: Lettres secretes et curiales du pape Urbain V se
  181. Van Cleve,
  182. Vickers,
  183. Villani,
  184. vols.,
  185. William of Machaut, La Prise d'Alexandrie, ou Chroni
  186. Wolff, R.L., 'Mortgage and Redemption of an Enperor's Son: Castile and the Latin Empire of Constantinople', Speculum, XXIX (1954), 45-84.
  187. Wolff, R.L., 'Politics in the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople 1204-1261', Dumbarton Oaks Papers, VIII (1954), 225-303.
  188. Wolff, R.L., 'The Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1204-1261', in MC,
  189. Youngs, G.R., 'Three Cilician Castles', Anatolian Studies, XV (1965), 113-34.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.