Location of Repository

Assessment of environmental degradation in Northern Ghana: A GIS based participatory approach

By Isaac Agyemang


The task of understanding how human actions interact in a complex way to bring about environmental degradation requires a holistic research approach. This thesis examines the potential application of a GIS based participatory approach in the assessment of environmental degradation in northern Ghana. It is a development of GIS in participatory\ud research earlier proposed by Abbot et al. (1998) and modified by Williams and Dunn (2003) to assess the impacts of landmines in Cambodia. Using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) framework of the European Environmental Agency as an assessment framework, conventional GIS techniques were integrated with participatory research tools, dubbed "community truthing", to assess the state of the environment, evaluate the driving\ud forces, assess the impact, evaluate community coping strategies and their responses towards a better environment. The developed assessment framework was tested for its robustness in the Bolgatanga and Talensi-Nabdam districts of northern Ghana. While most of the study area\ud was a healthy environment in 1990, by 2004 about 600 km2 of the land area was degraded to the point where it could not be used for any commercial purposes. Spatially, the problem was more pronounced in the mid-north of Bolgatanga and northeast of Talensi-Nabdam as identified from fieldwork and the interpretation of satellite images. It was observed that the problem of environmental degradation is aggravated by socio-economic and cultural processes that motivate individuals to engage in activities that exert many pressures on theenvironment. Impacts were evaluated to include threats of desertification, food shortages,\ud cross-cultural tensions, health risk and reduction in living standards. Driving force reduction, effective environmental management practices, environmental awareness programmes and compensation to affected communities were responses participants perceived would help realise a better future environment. Based on the research findings, the thesis concludes that the developed assessment framework is an effective means of organising complex\ud environmental information for environmental decision making

Publisher: School of Geography (Leeds)
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:602

Suggested articles



  1. (1998). A doi
  2. (2000). A critical review of the literature on structural adjustment and the environment, Environment Department Working Paper (Draft) World Bank,
  3. (1991). A distorted world of knowledge, doi
  4. (1998). A European system of environmental pressure indices: First volume of the environmental pressure indices handbook: The indicators [online] http: //esl. jrc. it/envind/theory/hand accessed
  5. (1990). A factor-analytical derived measure of coping: The coping stratý2, \ indicator, doi
  6. (1996). A GIS based decision making system for environmental impact assessment,
  7. (1976). A land use and land-cover classification system for use with remote sensor data, Geological Surveti'
  8. (1998). A model for evaluating public participation GIS programs, empowerment. marginalization and public participation GIS, Specialist meetings at the National Centre for Geographic Information and Analysis
  9. (1992). A poverty profile for Ghana, social dimensions of adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa, Working paper 5,
  10. (1998). A quantitative comparison of change detection, algorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remote sensed data,
  11. (1988). A review of digital data commonly available and some of the practical problems of entering them into a GIS, Environmental S` stems Research Institute,
  12. (1991). A study of the reasons for the success and failures of soil conservation projects, FAO,
  13. (2001). A world free from poverty, Africa Region Findings, the World Bank. doi
  14. (1997). Accelerated agricultural development and growth strategy in supper! of Ghana, Vision 2020, Ministry of Food and Agriculture,
  15. (1988). Acculturation and mental health, In
  16. (1974). Accumulation on a world scale, Monthly Review Press, doi
  17. (1996). Accuracy assessment: A critical component of land-cover mapping and gap analysis, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing,
  18. (2000). African land tenure: Questioning basic assumptions, Dry lands programme issues paper
  19. (1992). Agenda 21, Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro,
  20. (2006). Agricultural and the environment in north eastern Ghana, Working paper on partnership and policies for change, ODI,
  21. (1984). Agricultural ecosystems: Unifying concepts, doi
  22. (1997). Agricultural land administration and social differentiation, A case study of the Tano, Vea and Fumbisi belts of north eastern
  23. (1994). Air pollution in the world's mega-cities,
  24. (1971). An Analysis of the determinants of internal labour mobility in India, doi
  25. (1999). An assessment methodology for the development of internet GIS, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, doi
  26. (2005). An assessment of environmental impacts of quarryingblasting operation: A case study in Istanbul, Turkey, doi
  27. (1999). An easy on the principle of population, Oxford World Classic,
  28. (1985). An introduction to fire dynamics, doi
  29. (1991). An introduction to spatial analysis in GIS. In doi
  30. (1991). An overview and definition of GIS, In
  31. (1993). Analysing the cumulative effects of forest practices: Where do we start? Geo Info Systems,
  32. (2002). Analysis of a Sahelien annual rainfall index from doi
  33. (1998). Analysis of changes in a multi-date data set: A case study doi
  34. (2000). Analysis of land-use change: Theoretical and modelling approaches.
  35. (1990). Anatomy of the Amazon gold rush, doi
  36. (2003). Annual report: Revised draft, Environmental Protection Agency,
  37. (1995). Apartheid representations in a digital landscape: GIS, remote sensing and local knowledge in Kiepersol, doi
  38. (2007). Application of DPSIR framework to environmental degradation assessment in northern Ghana, doi
  39. (1991). Approaches to the conservation of coastal wetlands in the western hemisphere,
  40. (1999). Arguments, debates, and dialogue: The GIS-social theory debate and the concern for alternatives, In
  41. (1992). Ashanti goldfields: The jewel in Ghana's crown, Sponsorship Statement, Euro money,
  42. (2003). Assessing participatory GIS for community forestrv planning, in Cameroon: A local governance perspective,
  43. (2005). Assessing participatory GIS for community-based natural resource management: Claiming community forests in Cameroon, doi
  44. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, doi
  45. (2000). Being there: Research through observing and participating. In
  46. (2001). Between peace and justice: Dispute settlement between Karahoro agriculturalist and Fulbe agro-pastoralists in Burkina Faso, Gpsala . ciu /rý in Cultural Anthropology, doi
  47. (1996). Beyond growth: The economic of sustainable development, doi
  48. (2000). Big Island, Green forests and backpackers land use and development options on Ilka Grande, Brazil,
  49. (2000). Borders, rules and governance. Mapping to catalyse changes in policy and management, Sustainable agriculture and rural livelihoods programme, 91, Gatekeeper Series,
  50. (1998). Brief on agriculture, Prepared for the visit of the British Secretary of'Stmt' for International Development to the northern Region of Ghana,
  51. (1999). Bush-fire and the domestication of the wild in northern Ghana, In
  52. (1985). Bushfires and agricultural development in
  53. (2004). Can PGIS strengthen local-level planning? Suggestion for better practice, ITC,
  54. (1999). Capacity building for integrated environmental assessment and reporting,
  55. (1992). Capturing traditional environmental knobwedge, International Development Research Centre,
  56. (2001). Catastrophic shift in ecosystems,
  57. (1992). Cell-based modelling with GRID: analysis, display, and management (Second Edition), Environmental Systems,
  58. (2003). Channel changes and living fencerows in eastern Sonora. `le\ico: Myopia in traditional resource management, Geografiska Annaler. doi
  59. (1999). Characterization of the alternative to slash-and-burn benchmark research area representing the Congolese rainforests of Africa using near realtime SPOT HRV data, doi
  60. (1999). Christianity and the environment in the American public. doi
  61. (1996). Christianity, environmentalism, and the theoretical problem of fundamentalism, doi
  62. (2001). Civic culture, community and citizen participation in contrasting neighbourhoods, doi
  63. (1994). Classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas, Proceedings,
  64. (2001). Climatic perspective on Sahelien desiccation: 1975-1998,
  65. (1990). Coefficient of agreement for nominal scales, doi
  66. (1975). Colonial development in northern Ghana, 1898-1950,
  67. (1976). Communal land tenure and the problem of transforming traditional agriculture in Ghana,
  68. (2003). Community participation and Geographic Information Systems, In doi
  69. (1997). Compensation of environmental degradation by highways: A Dutch case study, doi
  70. (1998). Computer-based models in integrated environmental assessment. A report produced for the European Environmental Agency,
  71. (1998). Conditions for enhanced cooperation between people and institutions,
  72. (1998). Conflicts or symbiosis disentangling farmer-herdsmen relations: The Mossi and Fulbe of the Central Plateau, Burkina Faso, doi
  73. (1999). Consensus building and complex adaptive 1%steills: :i framework for evaluating collaborative planning. doi
  74. (2005). Context and power in contemporary planning towards reflexive planning analytics, Department Planning Unit, Working paper, 128,
  75. (1975). Contraction and expansion in Nigeria Bovine pastoralism,
  76. (1993). Converting the wetlands, endangering the environment: The intersection of gender with agrarian change in the Gambia, doi
  77. (1996). Cooperation and the use 0> technology in handbook of research for educational communication and technology,
  78. Corruption and other constraints on the land market and land administration in Ghana: A preliminary investigation,
  79. (1998). Cross-cutting issues in developing agri-environmental indicators, Paper presented at OECD Working on Agri-Environmental Plenary Session,
  80. (2004). Cultural and biological interactions in the savannah woodland of northern Ghana, Sacred forests and management of trees, Paper presented at the conference of trees, rain and politics in Africa,
  81. (2004). Democratic decentralisation in Ghana: Issues and prospects,
  82. (1989). Designing qualitative research, doi
  83. (1997). Determinants of international migration in Ghana in contemporary times,
  84. (1996). Development strategy, macroeconomic policies, and the environment, In
  85. (1990). Development theory and the three worlds, Longman Scicntitic and Technical Publications. John N\*ile\ and Sons. Ne York.
  86. (1995). Different functions of coding in the analysis of textual data, In
  87. (1996). Digital change detection in forest ecosv stems with remote sensing imagery, doi
  88. (1989). Digital change detection techniques using remotely-sensed data, doi
  89. (1986). Discrepancies between environmental attitudes and behaviour:
  90. (1998). Displaying opinions, topics and disagreement in focus group, doi
  91. (2002). District medium term development plan. tal- poverty reduction strategy, District Administrative Office.
  92. (1992). Diversity in tropical rainforest, Scientific America Library,
  93. (1993). Does economic reform harm the environment: A review of structural adjustment in Malawi, doi
  94. (1998). Earl warning indicators of desertification: Examples of tests in the Chihuahuas desert. doi
  95. (1998). Early warnings of emerging environmental treats, Meeting Report,
  96. (1977). Eco-science: population, resource, environment, WH Freeman,
  97. (1991). Ecological Crisis and Population Displacement, Paper presented at the conference on worldwide refugee movements,
  98. (1999). Ecological economics and the ecology of economics, doi
  99. (1992). Ecological footprints and appropriate carrying capacity: What urban economics leave out, doi
  100. (1987). Ecology and land use changes in the semi-arid zone of the Sudan. In
  101. (1989). Economic development in the third world, doi
  102. (1999). Economic restructuring dynamics and environmental problems in Africa, empirical examples from the forestry and mining sectors of Ghana.
  103. (2003). Ecosystem and human well-being: A framework for assessment, World Resource Institute,
  104. (2004). Effects of artificial water points on the Oshana ecosystem in Namibia, doi
  105. (1999). Embedding GIS applications into resource management and planning activities of community groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Paper and proceedings of
  106. (1998). Empowerment, marginali-ation and communi! i participation GIS, In
  107. (1986). Environment and development, doi
  108. (1994). Environment, growth and development: The concept and strategies of sustainability, Rutledge, London and doi
  109. (2006). Environmental and ecological economics: A citation analysis, doi
  110. (2000). Environmental assessment in development and transitional countries, doi
  111. (2004). Environmental change and its implications for population migration, doi
  112. (1993). Environmental data report, doi
  113. (1994). Environmental degradation and desertification in Ghana: A case of the Upper East Region of Ghana,
  114. (1997). Environmental degradation and population movements: The role of property rights, doi
  115. (1994). Environmental degradation and social integration,
  116. (1997). Environmental degradation, glossary of environmental statistics,
  117. (1996). Environmental effects of mining,
  118. (1995). Environmental impact assessment cutting edge for the 21 S` century, The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, doi
  119. (1988). Environmental impact theory and practices,
  120. (1996). Environmental impacts of structural adjustment: The social dimension. In
  121. (1991). Environmental implications of structural adjustment: Rejlectimn_s o the scientific method, Discussion Paper 284,
  122. (1994). Environmental Indicators: OECD Core Set, doi
  123. (1999). Environmental indicators: Typology and overview,
  124. (1993). Environmental modelling with GIS.
  125. (1998). Environmental motivations for migration, population pressure, poverty and deforestation in the Philippin- s. doi
  126. (1996). Environmental problems in international context, In doi
  127. (1997). Environmental refugees, doi
  128. (1992). Environmentalism among nation-states, doi
  129. (1998). Evaluating the sustainability of agriculture,
  130. (2002). Examining the community empowerment process in public participation
  131. (1991). Expansion and contraction of the Sahara desert from doi
  132. (1995). Faith and the environment: Religious beliefs and attitudes on environmental policy, doi
  133. (1999). Field guide: Earth resources data analysis system,
  134. (1995). Findings from focus groups conducted with farmers, agency staff, crop consultants and researchers, Department of Agriculture,
  135. (1965). Fire in vegetation and its use in pasture management with special reference to tropical and Sub-Tropical Africa,
  136. (1995). Focus group and ethnography,
  137. (1996). Focus group as alternative research practice: Experience with trans-migrants in
  138. (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research, doi
  139. (1992). Focus groups: Methods of inquiry and intervention, doi
  140. (1996). Focusing on hurricane Andrew through the eyes of the victims,
  141. (2000). Focusing on the focus methods in Human Geography,
  142. (1996). Focussing on fear: The use of focus groups in a project for the co>>nmunity forest unit, countryside commission.
  143. (1996). Food production and population growth: The role of population factors in projections for 2050, Peer review for FAO,
  144. for Disaster Reduction (2004), Terminology for disaster risk reduction. doi
  145. (1989). For the common good, doi
  146. (1994). Forest conservation and biodiversity in Ghana, In
  147. (2001). Four square laundry, participant observation in a \tiar zone, doi
  148. Friends of the Earth Scotland (2003), Open cast mining, Lottery Funded Catalyst Project,
  149. (2002). From the DPSIR reporting framework to a system for a dynamic and integrated decision making process, Conference on European policy and tools for sustainable water management,
  150. (1992). Fundamentals of spatial information systems, doi
  151. (1998). Furthering cooperation between people and institutions, doi
  152. (1999). Geographic information systems (GIS) for participation: The future of environmental GIS? doi
  153. (1989). Geographic information systems: A management perspective, doi
  154. (1999). Geographical information systems and environmental impact assessment, UNIGIS Module, Faculty of Economics, Vrije Universiteit
  155. (1998). GIS and community-based planning: Exploring the diversity of neighbourhood perspectives, doi
  156. (1995). GIS and long range planning for indigenous territories,
  157. (1998). GIS and society,
  158. (1998). GIS and Society: A lot of fuss about very little that matters and not enough about that which does, NCGIA initiative 19 Position Paper.
  159. (1996). GIS and Society: The social implications,
  160. (1995). GIS and Society: Towards a research agenda, doi
  161. (1992). GIS brings new outlook to Florida keys marine resources management,
  162. (2002). GIS for community forestry user groups in Nepal: Putting' people before technology, In doi
  163. (1993). GIS for environmental assessment and review: Environmental assessment sourcebook update, 3. World doi
  164. (2003). GIS in participatory research: Assessing the impacts of landmines on communities in North-West Cambodia, doi
  165. (1997). GIS: Tool or science, demystifying the persistent ambiguity of GIS as tool versus science. doi
  166. (1990). Global assessment of soil degradation, ISRIC/UNEP, doi
  167. (2004). Global environmental issues, doi
  168. (1990). Global land-use and land-cover change: An overview, In doi
  169. (1996). Government compensate landowners in Upper East Region, Ghanaweb, internet [online] http: //www. ghanaweb. com accessed
  170. (1998). Governments and Geographic Information, doi
  171. (1997). GPS an overvieit'. Centre for Spatial Integrated Social Sciences. \C'GI, \ Core Curriculum in Geosciences,
  172. (1992). GPS support vital to long term ecological research programme.
  173. (1995). Ground truth: The social implications of GIS, doi
  174. (1991). Haiti refugee, political, economic and environmental,
  175. (1999). HIV/STD transmission in gold mining areas of Bolivia State, Venezuela: Interventions for diagnosis, treatment and prevention, doi
  176. (1984). Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment doi
  177. (1998). How and why community groups use maps and geographic information, doi
  178. (1992). How OECD countries responds to state of the environment report,
  179. (1990). Human Development Report, doi
  180. (2004). Human resilience in a degrading environment: A case study in China, Asian journal of Social Psti"choloý,, y, doi
  181. (1995). Identifying unethical conduct in the use of GIS, doi
  182. (2001). Impact of mining sector investment in Ghana: A study of the Tarkwa mining region, A draft report, Savannah Agricultural Research Institute,
  183. (1970). Impact of population growth, doi
  184. (2000). Impact of the gold industry on the indigenous peoples of
  185. (2002). Implementing a community-integrated GIS: perspectives from South African fieldwork, In doi
  186. (1993). Improving survey questionnaire through focus groups, doi
  187. (1990). Improving the sustainability of dryland farming systems: A global perspective, doi
  188. (2001). In search of a ne\ý impetus: Practitioners reflections on PRA and participation
  189. (1985). Incidences of bush fires in Ghana, Environmental Protection Agency,
  190. (1998). Incorporating farmers and fishers knowledge into national resources systems
  191. (1997). Indicators and their use: Information for decision making,
  192. (1997). Indigenous institutions and environmental assessment: The case of Ghana, doi
  193. (1998). Indigenous knowledge for development: A framework for action, knowledge and learning centre Africa Region, World Bank,
  194. (1994). Inequality as a cause of environmental degradation. doi
  195. (2000). Institutionalisation of geographic information technology, gigs: Unifying concept,
  196. (1990). Institutions, social organisation and cultural values, In
  197. (2002). Integrated assessment and desertification,
  198. (2007). Integrating local and scientific knowledge for adaptation to land degradation: Kalahari rangeland management options, Land degradation and Development, doi
  199. (1993). Integration of linear programming and GIS for land-use modelling, doi
  200. (1984). Internal migration and land tenure in Ghana, Unpublished PhD thesis,
  201. (1999). International migration and agricultural development in Ghana.
  202. (2001). Internet GIS for public participation, Journal for Environment and Planning B. Planning and Design, doi
  203. (2002). Internet, maps and public participation: Contemporary limits and possibilities, doi
  204. (2001). Interpretation and representation: Issues in field research in Human Geography, In
  205. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and social sciences, doi
  206. (2000). Interviewing, In
  207. (1993). Introduction: The land question and agricultural transformation in Subsaharan Africa, In
  208. (1996). Introductory digital image processing, remote sensing perspective. doi
  209. IUCN-CEESP Environment and security task force briefing,, Prcs. 'ntatio, i at the World Conservation Conference,
  210. (2007). Land degradation assessment in southern Africa: Integrating local and scientific knowledge bases, Land Degradation and Development, doi
  211. (1990). Land degradation in Ghana, Commonwealth Secretariat,
  212. (1991). Land degradation: Development and breakdown of terrestrial environments, doi
  213. (2000). Land issues and land cases doi
  214. (1988). Land tenure and the development dialogue, Grantas Education,
  215. (2000). Land use and land-cover dynamics in response to changes in climate, biological and socio-political forces: The case of south-western Ethiopia,
  216. (2004). Land use and land-cover study of the savannah ecosystem in the Upper. West Region of Ghana using remote sensing,
  217. (1991). Land use changes in Europe. processes of change: environmental transformations and future patterns. doi
  218. (1987). Land use conflicts in the agricultural-pastoral borderland, The case of Kenya, In
  219. (1973). Land use, land tenure and agricultural development in Ghana, FAO,
  220. (1991). Land use, migration and natural resources deterioration:
  221. (1996). Land-use and land-cover classification scheme for Ghana, Remote Sensing Application Unit,
  222. (1997). Land-use changes and GIS database development for strategic environmental assessment in Ha Long Bay, Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam,
  223. (1979). Land-use in the southern margins of the Sahara, In doi
  224. (1997). Landsat TM spectral information to enhance the land-cover of Scotland doi
  225. (1989). Landscape ecology: Effect of pattern on processes, doi
  226. (2003). Linking community participation to gcospatial technologies,
  227. (2000). Links between economic liberation and rural resource degradation in the developing regions, doi
  228. (1995). Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: Asset categories and investment poverty, doi
  229. (2002). Livelihood decision making and environmental degradation: Iýmallscale gold mining in the Surinam Amazon, Society and \aiura! doi
  230. Livestock grazing systems and the environment [online] www. fao. or docre /p /htm assessed
  231. (1994). Livestock, recognizing their role in sustainable agriculture, FAO.
  232. (1994). Living poor: Family life among single parent African American women, doi
  233. (1992). Macro-policy and the environment: A framework for analysis, doi
  234. (1996). Macroeconomic policies. second-best theory and the environment, In doi
  235. (1992). Making peace with the planet,
  236. (1977). Man and the biology of and zone,
  237. (1990). Management and restoration of human impacted resources: Approaches to ecosystem rehabilitation.
  238. (1995). Management of natural resources and the environment in Zimbabwe: The case of gold,
  239. (1979). Management of semi-arid ecosystems in Israel, In doi
  240. (2000). Manual on participatory 3-dimensional modelling for natural resource management,
  241. (1998). Market or community failure: Critical perspectives on common property research,
  242. (2001). Maroon gold miners and mining risks in the Suriname Amazon. In
  243. (1998). Mercury from gold and silver mining: A chemical time bomb, doi
  244. (2002). Meso-scale meteorological modelling (Second Edition),
  245. (1998). Micro-level coping strategies by rural women for managing biomass resources,
  246. (2000). MIGIS, Mobile Interactive GIS [online] http: 1/ www. geo. ac. nz/geogrraphy/projects/migis assessed
  247. (2000). Migrant Fulani herdsman: Indigenous farmers and the contest for land in northern Ghana, Draft paper submitted to the biennial conference of the African studies association,
  248. (1970). Migrant labour and agricultural output in Ghana,
  249. (1966). Migration as an adjustment to environmental stress, doi
  250. (2004). Migration dynamics and small-scale gold mining, in north-eastern Ghana: Implications for sustainable rural liNclihood.
  251. (1976). Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution, Paper presented at Research U "orkshop on Rural Labour Market Interactions, International Bank for Reconstruction
  252. (1975). Migration from rural areas: The evidence from village studies, doi
  253. (2002). Migration, population change and the rural environment,
  254. (1996). Mindful of famine: Religious climatology of the Warao Indians, doi
  255. (1992). Mining and the environment: The Ghanaian experience,
  256. (1996). Misreading the African landscape: Society and ecology in a forest-savannah mosaic, African Studies Series, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge and doi
  257. (2002). Models for making GIS available to community organizations: Dimensions of difference and appropriateness. In doi
  258. (1999). Monitoring land-cover changes: A comparison of change detection techniques, doi
  259. (1994). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Kenya,
  260. (2002). More vvoodv plant: The status of bush encroachment in Botswana's -grazing areas, doi
  261. (1995). Multiple meanings: Shopping and the cultural politics of identity, doi
  262. (1998). Multiple uses of common pool resources in semi arid West Africa: A survey of existing practices and options for sustainable resource management,
  263. (1999). Negotiable desert: Expert knowledge in the negotiations o>'the Coll IT , l! ico, i to combat desertification,
  264. (1999). Negotiating restructuring and sustainability: A study of communities experiencing rapid social change, Australian housing and urban research institute Working Paper,
  265. (2000). New Urbanism and the Culture of Criticism, doi
  266. (1997). Noah's ark goes to Washington: A profile of c\an`gclical environmentalism, doi
  267. (2004). Noise pollution in stone quarrying: A case study in Bangalore district,
  268. (1990). Normalization of satellite imagery, doi
  269. (1994). North-south trade and the global environment,
  270. (1993). Of global concern: Results of the health of the planet survey, doi
  271. (1994). On agricultural sustainability and its management in smallscale farming in sub-Saharan Africa, doi
  272. (1987). Our common future, The World Commission on Environment and Development. doi
  273. (2000). Oxford advanced learners dictionary of current English (Sixth Edition),
  274. (2001). Participatory 3-D modelling: Bridging the gap between communities and GIS technology, Paper given at international workshop on participatory technology development and local knowledge for sustainable land use in Southeast Asia,
  275. (1997). Participatory action research and social change, doi
  276. (1998). Participatory approach: Contradiction and co-option in Burkina Faso, doi
  277. (2005). Participatory GIS for growth management in the Cheat Lake Planning District of Mongalia County,
  278. (2007). Participatory GIS-a people's GIS? Progress in Human Geography, doi
  279. (1998). Participatory GIS: Opportunity or oxymoron,
  280. (2002). Participatory selection process for indicators of rangeland condition in the Kalahari, doi
  281. (2006). Pastoralism in tropical Africa, doi
  282. (1976). Pastoralist under pressure,
  283. (1974). Pattern recognition principles, doi
  284. (2003). People and the environment: approaches for linking household and community surveys to remote sensing and GIS, doi
  285. (1994). Pollution prevention for sustainable development: The land-use questions, doi
  286. (1993). Population and consumption issues for em ironmentalists: A literature search and bibliography, Paper Presented for the population rL'tt'rL'nce Bureau and the Pew Charitable Trust,
  287. (1993). Population and deforestation,
  288. Population and housing census reports for 2000: Analysis of district data and implications for planning, Upper East Region, Ghana Statistical Services,
  289. (2004). Population and land-use/cover dynamics in the Volta River doi
  290. (1991). Population and the energy problem, doi
  291. (2001). Population density. soil nutrient depletion and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, doi
  292. (1999). Population dynamics: Migration and the future of the Calakmul biosphere reserve, Population and sustainable development occasional paper, 1, Association for the Advancement of Science,
  293. (1982). Population expansion and desertification in I anzania.
  294. (1993). Population growth and land degradation, doi
  295. (1974). Population growth and rural urban migration -'Kith special retcrcncc to Ghana,
  296. (1992). Population issues,
  297. (1992). Population, sustainability and earth carrying capacit}, doi
  298. (1998). Post-peasant capitalist grazers: The 21st century in southern doi
  299. (1995). Poverty and environment in developing countries: An overview study,
  300. (2003). Poverty and environmental degradation in the Nicaraguan hillside,
  301. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis, doi
  302. (1995). Poverty and the environment: Reconciling short-term needs with long-term sustainability goals, LTNEP,
  303. (1989). Poverty and the environment: Reversing the downward spiral, World Paper 92, World Watch,
  304. (1992). Poverty, environment and development, doi
  305. (1997). Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China, doi
  306. (1993). Poverty, population and the environment, World Bank discussion paper 189,
  307. (1994). Poverý. y, institutions and the environrLrntal rt'cour, ", base, World Bank Environment Paper 9, World Bank.
  308. (2001). Power, knowledge and social control in participatory development,
  309. (2000). Practitioners critical reflections on PRA and participation in Nepal,
  310. Press release number 815, United Nations,
  311. (1962). Principles of customary land laws in
  312. (1986). Principles of' geographical information systems for land resources assessment. doi
  313. (1998). Problems of the environment through quarrying activities.
  314. (1954). Problems of theory in the analysis of stress behaviour, doi
  315. (2004). Problems with participatory mapping in forest management: A case of Hedai village forest reserve,
  316. (1981). Procedures for change detection using Landsat digital data, doi
  317. (2000). Processes of desertification by goats overgrazing in the Tamaulipan thorn scrub in north-eastern Mexico, doi
  318. Property rights and renewable natural resources degradation in north-western Ghana, doi
  319. (2002). Proximate and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation, doi
  320. (2000). Public participation GIS cyerdemocracy: Evaluating online spatial decision support Systems, Environmental Planning B: Planning and Design, doi
  321. (2004). Public participation in environmental decision making, doi
  322. (2001). Public participation using web-based GIS, Environment and Planning: Planning and Design, doi
  323. (2002). Public Participation: Technological discourses and the scale of GIS, In doi
  324. (1995). Pursuing social goals through participatory GIS: Redressing South Africa historical political ecology,
  325. (2000). Push and pull factors of international migration. Country report, Working papers, 10,
  326. (1997). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions, doi
  327. (2001). Qualitative methodologies for geographers: Issues and debates,
  328. (1988). Qualitative methods in Human Geography,
  329. (2004). Qualitative research methods in Human Geography, Oxford Univer it\ Press.
  330. (1995). Qualitative research Victoria, Australia:
  331. (2002). Radiometric normalization of multi-temporal high-resolution images with quality control for land cover change detection, Remote Sensing of Environmental Volumes, doi
  332. (2002). Rainfall variability, climate change and impact of drought risk agricultural production,
  333. (1994). Rangeland monitoring and change detection using remote sensing,
  334. (1997). Rapid urbanization, land markets and gender insecurity in perl-urban Kumasi, Ghana, Final draft report,
  335. (1998). Reactivity of mercury from gold mining activities in dark water ecosystems,
  336. (1996). Recent development in small-scale mining: A report by the Secretary
  337. (1979). Red and photographic infrared linear combination for monitoring vegetation, Remote Sensing of the Environment, doi
  338. (1995). Redefining nature: Ecology, culture and domestication. doi
  339. (1978). Reflections on experimental fieldwork in humanistic geography: Prospects and Problem,
  340. (1998). Refugees, environment and development, doi
  341. (1995). Regenerative agriculture, Policies and practices for sustainability and self reliance, doi
  342. (2003). Regional Coordinating Council
  343. (2003). Regional meteorological
  344. (1996). Regularizing informal mining, A summary of the proceedings of the international roundtable on artisanal mining, World Bank Industry and Energy
  345. (2001). Religion and attitudes towards nature in Britain. doi
  346. (1997). Religious effects on environmentalism. doi
  347. (1998). Remote sensing and disaster management: The case of earthquake hazard of Accra, In
  348. (1987). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, doi
  349. (1994). Remote sensing and photo interpretation. doi
  350. (2000). Report survey on environmental and health impacts,
  351. (1999). Research method: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, African Centre for Technology Studies Press,
  352. (1985). Research methods in social and behavioural sciences. Sinauer Associates,
  353. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems,
  354. (1979). Resources, environment and population: The nature of future limits,
  355. (1993). Rethinking range ecology: Implications for range management in Africa, In
  356. (1994). Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology,
  357. (1991). Review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data, doi
  358. (1993). Review of technology for the successful development of small-scale mining,
  359. (1998). Rhetoric of environmental sustainability: Common places and places, Environment and Planning, doi
  360. (1984). Room for manoeuvre: An exploration of public policy planning in agricultural and rural development, doi
  361. (2001). Rural decentralisation in BurkinaFaso: Local level institution and poverty eradication, A world free of Poverty,
  362. (1986). Rural migration and its implications for rural development in Ghana, In
  363. (1992). Savannah management for ecological sustainability,
  364. (1996). Saving the creation: Christian environmentalism in the United States. doi
  365. (1995). Scanning the global environment: A framework and methodology for UNEP reporting functions, UNEP Environment Assessment
  366. (1997). Science and the desertification debate, doi
  367. (2003). Seasonal migration and land-use change in Ghana, doi
  368. (2003). Seeking good governance in participatory GIS: A review of processes and governance dimensions in applying GIS to participate spatial planning, doi
  369. (2002). Seeking good governance in participatory-GIS: A review of indigenous spatial knowledge processes, and governance dimensions doi
  370. (1988). Semi-detailed soil survey and land evaluation of the onchocerciasis free zone planning in the northern Ghana,
  371. (1989). Sense and sustainability: Sustainability as an objective in international agricultural research: doi
  372. (1996). Shopping around: Focus group research in north London,
  373. (1990). Sketch mapping as a diagnostic tool in forest management,
  374. (1997). Small-scale minin<, in Ghana: Techniques and environmental considerations. doi
  375. (1986). Smallholder settlement of tropical South America: The social causes of ecological destruction,
  376. (1994). Social dimensions of desertification: A review of key issues emerging from the literature, Paper prepared by UNRISD for the United Nations Environmental Programmes Desertification Control Programme Activity Centre,
  377. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion, doi
  378. (1965). Social roots of dispersed settlement in northern Ghana, Working Paper, doi
  379. (1996). Society and environment eroded: A case sturcdl of household polvc'ri and natural resources,
  380. (2001). Society, culture and environmental adaptability doi
  381. (1998). Soil and water conservation strategies at regional, sub-regional and national levels,
  382. (1995). Soil erosion and land degradation, In doi
  383. (2002). Soil fertility and soil parameter chun' es in d&quot;C re, u land-use-systems after conservation of national forest to agriculttn-al land,
  384. (1994). Soil water and nutrient management research, a new agenda, IBSRAM position paper,
  385. (1998). Soils of the Busa agricultural station of the Upper West Region,
  386. (1986). Solid and hazardous waste disposal site selection using digital GIS techniques, doi
  387. (1997). Spatial arrangement of social and economic networks among villages in Nang Rong, Thailand, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Sunbelt Social network Conference, doi
  388. (1998). Spatial prediction of vegetation quantities using ground and image data, doi
  389. (1995). Spatial variability of images and the monitoring of changes in normalised difference vegetation index, doi
  390. (1993). Spreading deserts or spatially confined environmental impacts: Land degradation and cattle ranching in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana, doi
  391. (1995). Staff appraisal report, Republic of Ghana: Mining sector development and environmental project. World Bank Report 13 881-GH, Industry and Energy Operations, West Central Africa Department, Africa Region, World Bank,
  392. (1991). State control of the environment, politics and degradation in Mexico: Capitalism nature, doi
  393. (2001). State of the environment
  394. (2001). State of the world report doi
  395. (1997). State of the World's Forests
  396. (1998). State-wide change detection using multi-temporal remote sensing data, Paper presented at the seventh forest service remote sen in1 application conference in
  397. (1991). Status of desertification and implementation of the United Nations: Plan of action to combat desertification, Report of the Executive Director to UNEP/GCSS.
  398. (2000). Strategies for monitoring tropical deforestation using satellite data, doi
  399. (1998). Streamlining artisanal gold mining activities and the promotion of cleaner production in the mining sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana as a case study,
  400. (1984). Stress appraisal and coping, doi
  401. (1996). Structural adjustment and environmental linkages: A case study
  402. (1999). Structural adjustment and market imperfections: A stylized village economy-wide model with non-separable farm households, doi
  403. (1997). Structural adjustment and mass poverty in Ghana: The making of modern Africa, 115-160, Athenaeum Press, Tyne
  404. (1988). Successful focus groups: Advancing the state of the art. doi
  405. (1998). Supervised versus Unsupervised Methods for Classification of Coast and River Corridors from Airborne Remote Sensing, doi
  406. (2000). Sustainability indicators of natural resources management and policy, Working paper 1, A review of indicator of agricultural and rural livelihood sustainability,
  407. (2001). Sustainability Indicators, Report on the project on indicators of sustainable development, doi
  408. (2000). Sustainability: What does it mean: Policy and strategy,
  409. (2002). Sustainability. Human, social, economic and environmental, encyclopaedia of global environmental change,
  410. (1991). Sustainable development: A critical review, doi
  411. (1999). Teaching geographical information handling skills for lower-income countries, doi
  412. (2000). Ten case studies: An overview, In
  413. (1996). The
  414. (1989). The accuracy of spatial databases, doi
  415. (2002). The challenge of ending rural poverty, Rural Povert\ Report IFA D.
  416. (2002). The devil's in the theory: A critical assessment of Robert Chambers \\ ork on participatory development, Third World Quarterly, doi
  417. (1986). The dimension and characteristics of rural poverty in Ghana, ISSER,
  418. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory, doi
  419. (2002). The drama of the commons, doi
  420. (1988). The Economics of afforestation: A case stiidi of Africa.
  421. (1992). The environment and population growth: Decade for action,
  422. (2001). The environmental impact of small-scale gold mining in Ghana: Identifying problems and possible solutions, doi
  423. (1995). The ethics of GIS, doi
  424. (2003). The evolution of and revolution in land surface design for climatic models, doi
  425. (1994). The expansion and adaptation of Fulbe pastoralism to sub-humid and humid conditions in Nigeria, doi
  426. (2001). The focus-group experience, In
  427. (1993). The geography of cyberspace, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, doi
  428. (1990). The great transformation in the earth a transformed by human action,
  429. (1976). The historical roots of our ecological crises,
  430. (1995). The hour of departure, forces that create refugees and migrant, World Watch Paper 125, World Watch Institute,
  431. (1997). The human ecosystem as an organising concept in ecosystem management, doi
  432. (1992). The Human impact on the environment, doi
  433. (1991). The impact of borehole dependent cattle grazing on the environment and society of the Eastern Kalahari Sandveld, Central District, Botswana, unpublished PhD thesis,
  434. (1988). The impact of climate and man on land transformation in central Sudan.
  435. (2000). The impact of service learning on democratic and civic values, doi
  436. (1992). The influence of shea and locus trees on sorghum production in Burkina Faso, doi
  437. (2002). The institutional dimensions of environmental change: Fit, interplay and scale, doi
  438. (1982). The Key informant techniques: A non-ethnographic application, In doi
  439. (1994). The methodology of focus groups: The importance of interaction between research participants, doi
  440. (1994). The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. doi
  441. (1994). the poor and the environment: Friends or foes, doi
  442. (1968). The population of Ghana: A study of spatial relationships of its sociocultural and economic characteristics, Ghana Statistical Service, doi
  443. (1998). The poverty of cities in developing regions, doi
  444. (2004). The production of urban space in Kenya: Central-local government power relations in mediating Space in Athi River Town,
  445. (1996). The role of GIS in improving environmental effectiveness: Theory versus practice, doi
  446. (1998). The search for gold in Surinam in the historly of earth sciences in Surinam, Institute Toegepaste Geowttenschappen TNO.
  447. (1960). The soil under shifting cultivation, Commonwealth bureau of soils, Commonwealth agricultural bureaux, Farm-harm Royal,
  448. (1989). The spatial impress and dynamics of underdevelopment in Ghana, In
  449. (1993). The state of gold mining in
  450. (1987). The state of the environment, doi
  451. (1993). The state of the world, United Nations Population Fund, doi
  452. (1993). The third revolution: Environment, population and a sustainable world, doi
  453. (1968). The tragedy of the commons, doi
  454. (1998). The unique qualities of a GIS, A commentary, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing,
  455. (1995). The use of GIS in local government, doi
  456. (1999). The use of participatory GIS in technolou\-poor countries,: Case studies from Zambia and Nepal,
  457. (1998). The use of PRA in applied anthropology: Minority people of southwest China,
  458. (1999). Time series remote sensing of landscape variabiliti' in the southern Great Plains indicator Regions,
  459. (1997). Tool or science: GIS, techno science, and the theoretical turn. doi
  460. (1979). Towards a comprehensive framework for environmental statistics: A stress-response approach,
  461. (2002). Towards a more integrated ecosystem model, doi
  462. (2002). Towards a participatory GIS: Evaluating case studies of participatory rural appraisal and GIS in the developing world, doi
  463. (1991). Towards a Yukon SOE reporting framework, Sustainable development committee, Yukon Council on Economy and environment, Department of Renewable resources,
  464. (2004). Tribal nations, local governments, and regional pluralism in Washington position: The Swinomish approach in the Skagit Valley, doi
  465. (1981). Tropical forest resources assessment project [Framework of GEMS], Forest Resources of Tropical Africa, Part II, Country briefs, FAO,
  466. (1989). Truth and methods, Continuum,
  467. (2000). Underlying causes of forest decline, Centre for International Forestry Research Occasional Paper, 30, Sindag Barang,
  468. (1994). United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: Countries experiencing serious drought and desertification particularly in Africa. Text with annexes, UNEP, doi
  469. (2000). Unsupervised or supervised of time series: A new clustering method for remote sensing time series, doi
  470. (1989). Upper East agricultural intensification project,
  471. (1995). Urbanisation and the environment in developing countries,
  472. (2004). Urbanisation processes-environmental and health effects in Africa, Panel contribution to the PERK cyber-seminar on urban spatial expansion,
  473. (1999). Use of landsat thematic mapper data to assess seasonal rangeland changes in the southeast Kalahari, Botswana, doi
  474. (2005). Use of satellite imagery as environmental impact assessment tool: A Case study from the N- W Egyptian Red sea coastal zone, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, doi
  475. (1995). Using focus groups to discuss sensitive topics with children, doi
  476. (1982). Using known map category marginal frequencies to improve estimates of thematic map accuracy, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing,
  477. (2006). Using participatory GIS to bridge knowledge divides among the Onge of little
  478. (1993). Value orientation, gender and environmental concern, doi
  479. (2000). Vegetation response to grazing management in a Mediterranean herbaceous community: A functional group approach, doi
  480. (1998). Vegetation, soil, and animal indicators of rangeland health, doi
  481. (1987). Veld condition and trend in Kalahari duneveld under an extensive stock production system,
  482. (1993). Wastewater management project provides timely revenues,
  483. (1995). We know who you are and we know where you live: The instrumental rationality of geodemographic information system, doi
  484. (1993). When to use focus groups and \tih\. doi
  485. (2003). Working group on erosion: European commission soil thematic strategy, Working group on erosion, Interim Report, Executive Summary of the European Commission,
  486. (1998). Working with indigenous knowledge,
  487. (1992). World Atlas of Desertification, In
  488. (1997). World Development Indicators, The World Bank, doi
  489. (1992). World development report doi
  490. (1997). World map of desertification.
  491. (1990). World Population and Census Programme,
  492. (1994). World Resources 1994-1995: People and the Environment,
  493. (1993). World without end: Economics, environment and sustainable development, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.