Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Road User Charging: Acceptability and Effectiveness

By Sittha Jaensirisak


One of the major barriers to implementation of road user charging is how to design a scheme that is simultaneously acceptable to the public and effective in achieving its objective. The aim of this research was to study how road user charging can be designed to achieve acceptability\ud and effectiveness. Acceptability was reflected by voting behaviour, in which individuals were asked whether they were willing to vote for charging schemes. Effectiveness in reducing congestion was evaluated by mode switching of commuters. The research demonstrated the effects of the system benefits (car and bus travel time reduction, environmental improvement and revenue use) and the system features (charging levels, charging methods, charged times and charged areas). It also investigated the impacts of personal characteristics and perceptions. The research also examined the effect of selfish and social perspectives, reflected by the perceptions of benefits to self and to society, on acceptability.\ud \ud Paper based SP questionnaires were distributed to residents and employees in Leeds and London between November 2000 and March 2001. A total of 830 responses were received. The\ud analysis technique was based on random utility theory, which was used to formulate the multinomial-logit based models. The standard logit model was used to demonstrate the overall effects of variables for the whole sample. The segmentation model, based on the incremental factors, was used to identify the different effects for different groups of people. The random parameters logit model was used to examine taste variations (heterogeneity) among individuals\ud frorn unobserved factors, which were unable to be captured by the segmentation model.\ud \ud The study found that although more highly effective charging schemes (with higher levels of charge) were less acceptable, while more highly acceptable schemes (with lower levels of charge) were not substantially less effective. In other words, effective charging schemes were\ud not always unacceptable.\ud \ud Acceptability varies substantially across system characteristics. Acceptable road user charging\ud schemes can be designed by limiting the area of charge to within the city centre and having a fixed charge per day. Support would be increased significantly if the scheme was expected to bring substantial environmental improvement. Over 50% of people would vote for this scheme, if the charging level is less than £3 per day in Leeds, and less than £7 per day in London.\ud \ud Effectiveness in reducing car use had a small variation across the factors. Overall, any charging system is relatively effective in reducing car commuting. Even at £l per day, over 20% of car commuters in Leeds and about 30% in London would switch to non-car modes or uncharged\ud times. When the charge rises to £7 per day, the reductions would increase to around 40%. A small number of non-car users would change to use cars because of car delayed-time reductions.\ud \ud The acceptability and effectiveness can be improved by provision of clear information on the principles and objectives of charging, on the severity of congestion and pollution, on the adverse effects of car use, and on the effectiveness of road user charging in reducing the\ud problems. In addition, individuals need to be convinced that road user charging will provide benefits both to themselves and to society as a whole.\ud \ud In brief, this research suggests that the relationship between acceptability and effectiveness of road user charging schemes is not high. It is not simply the case that highly effective schemes are less acceptable. Road user charging can be designed to achieve high acceptability and effectiveness

Publisher: Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Year: 2002
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1976). (I 776b), The Theory of Moral Sentiments, edited by
  2. (1920). 1), "Justice: on relating private and public",
  3. (1986). 6'Rational egoism versus adaptive egoism as fundamental postulate for a descriptive theory of human behavior", doi
  4. (1997). A commons-dilemma approach to households' intentions to change their travel behaviour",
  5. (2001). a), "The sensitivitN, of the valuation of travel time savings to the spek: ification ofunobserN, ed effected". Transportation Research Part E,
  6. (1994). Accent Marketing and Research and Hague Consulting Group
  7. (1995). Acceptance road pricing: a three step process",
  8. (1998). Accommodating variations in responsiveness to level-of-service measures in travel model choice modeling", doi
  9. (1999). Affective motives for car use",
  10. (1995). ALOGIT Users' Guide: Version 3.8,
  11. (1978). Altruism and Economy: a Study in Non-selfish Economics, doi
  12. (2000). An advanced demand management instrument in urban transport: electronic road pricing in Singapore", Cities, doi
  13. (1992). An assessment of the political acceptability of congestion pricing", doi
  14. (1987). An Evaluation of the Use of Stated Preference and Transfer Price Data in Forecasting the Demand for Travel,
  15. (2000). An innovative stated preference computer survey model for valuing noise impacts from road traffic",
  16. (1993). Attitudes of politicians in London to road pricing",
  17. (1996). Attitudes to road pricing in the Bristol area",
  18. (1992). Attitudes towards the car in the U. K.: some implications for policies on congestion and the environment", doi
  19. (1988). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior,
  20. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, doi
  21. (1995). Blind justice: fairness to groups and the do-no-harm principle", doi
  22. (1993). Breaking the habit of lifestyle: scenarios for less car use",
  23. (1998). Breaking the Logjam: the Government's consultation paper on fighting traffic congestion and pollution through road user and workplace parking charges, Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions,
  24. (1995). Bridge and tunnel toll elasticities in New York: some recent evidence", doi
  25. (2001). C), "Measurement of the valuation of travel time savings", doi
  26. (1996). Car use as a social dilemma: conditions for behaviour change in reducing the use of motor vehicles",
  27. (1995). Car versus public transportation? The role of social value orientations in a real-life social dilemma", doi
  28. (2000). Changing Pnces: a Dypiamic Analysis of the Role of Pricing ing
  29. (2000). Characterisation of congestion on an urban road network subject to road-use pricing -a fundamental review",
  30. (2001). Combining sources of preference data", doi
  31. (1992). Congestion Charging Mechanisms for Roads: an Evaluation of Current Practice. World Bank working paper
  32. (1995). Congestion metering in Cambridge City, United Kingdom", doi
  33. (1998). Congestion pricing and road investment",
  34. (1969). Congestion theory and transport investment",
  35. (1987). Congestion",
  36. (1994). Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve Traffic Conggstion,
  37. (1999). Customer-specific taste parameters and mixed logit", working paper,
  38. (1988). Design of stated preference travel choice experiments with special reference to taste variation",
  39. (2000). Determinants of private car users' acceptance of road pricing", doi
  40. (2001). DETR project 'Analysis of Congested Network'
  41. (1992). Development of a survey instrument to measure subjective valuations of non-use benefits of local public transport services",
  42. (1985). Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand, doi
  43. (2002). Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation, doi
  44. (2000). Distance and time based road pricing trial in Dublin",
  45. (1997). Do time-based road-user charges induces nsk-taking? -Results from a driving simulator", Traffic Engineering and Controls,
  46. (1998). Driver response to variable message signs: stated preference investigation", doi
  47. (1990). Dual utilities and rational choice",
  48. (1993). Economic efficiency VS traffic restraint: a note on Singapore's Area License Scheme", doi
  49. (1992). Economic Fundamentals of Road Pricing: a Diagrammatic Analysis, World Bank working paper WPS 1070 (available from http: //www.
  50. (2000). Effects of alternative road pricing systems on network performance", doi
  51. (1999). Elasticity Handbook: Elasticities for Prototypical Contexts, Hague Consulting Group (available for www.
  52. (1985). Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: 2. technology", Traffic Engineering and Control,
  53. (1986). Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: 3. estimating and evaluating the effects, Traffic Engineering and Control,
  54. (1999). Electronic road pricing in Singapore",
  55. (2000). Eliminating bias due to the measurements in problem in SP data", doi
  56. (2000). EPR in Singapore-a perspective one year on",
  57. (1994). Equity and fairness considerations of congestion pricing", Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve Traffic Congestion,
  58. (1997). Estimating the Impact of Time-based Road User Charges on Risk Taking by Drivers, Working
  59. (1998). Experiments to determine drivers' response to road user charges",
  60. (1998). Factors affecting the validity of stated preference",
  61. (1992). Forecasting issues in stated preference survey research",
  62. (1999). Forecasting new product penetration with flexible substitution patterns", doi
  63. (1985). From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior", doi
  64. (1996). Getting car commuters onto public transport -a Survey in Merseyside",
  65. (1998). Greener transport towns: public acceptable, privately resisted? ", in Transport Policy and the Environment, edited by D. Banister
  66. (1998). Greenhouse gas emissions and Australian commuters' attitudes and behavior concerning abatement poll I Research D, doi
  67. (1998). Group on Transport Infrastructure Charging
  68. (1997). Group utility in the micro motivation of collective action: the case of membership in the AARP", doi
  69. (1982). Guide to Forecasting Travel Demand with Direct Utility Assessment,
  70. (1999). Halton sequences for mixed logit", working paper,
  71. (2000). Helping drivers out of their cars: integrating transport policy and social psychology for sustainable change", Traneort Policy, doi
  72. (2000). Household choices of car-use reduction measures ",
  73. (1992). How much do people value the environment? ", doi
  74. (1993). Impact of the Trondheim toll ring on travel behaviour: some preliminary findings",
  75. (1993). Implementing congestion pricing: winners and losers",
  76. (1998). Initial findings from the Leicester environmental road tolling scheme", paper presented at the 9" doi
  77. (1995). Is congestion pricing a first-best strategy in transport policy? a critical review of arguments", Environment and Planning B: Planning and DesigLi, doi
  78. (1999). LIMDEP 7.0 for Windows, Econometric Software Inc., doi
  79. (2000). Local authority and academic attitudes to urban road pricing: a UK perspective", doi
  80. (1993). London congestion charging: exploratory social research among London residents",
  81. Meertens (1996a), "Commuting by car or public transportation? A social dilemma analysis of travel mode judgements", doi
  82. (1998). Mixed logit with repeated choices: households' choices of appliance efficiency level", doi
  83. (2000). Mixed MNL models for discrete response", doi
  84. (1998). Mobility - the role of the private motor car electronic road pricing in Hong Kong",
  85. (1993). Modelling the Network Effects of Road User Charging: Results from a SATURN SLild
  86. (1994). Modelling Transport, doi
  87. (1997). Morality, maximization, and economic behavior", doi
  88. Nash (1993a), Segmentation of the Travel Market in London: Estimates of Elasticities and Values of Travel Time,
  89. (1991). Nash and A Wardman
  90. (1993). New analysis issues in stated preference research",
  91. (1997). Not Just for the Money: an Economic Theory of Personal Motivation, Edward Elgar Publishing,
  92. (1997). On public attitudes toward implementation of toll roads - the case of Oslo toll ring", doi
  93. (1968). On the measurement of the utility of public works",
  94. (1997). Opportunities to Improve Air Qualily through Transportation Pricing Programs,
  95. (2001). Overcoming public aversion to congestion pricing", doi
  96. Paying for Road Use: Technical Report, a report to the CoMMIssion for Integrated Transport (CflT),
  97. (2000). Paying for the use of roads that offer a premium level of service",
  98. (1998). Pricing & Restraint Strategies: Guidelines for European Policy Development, Deliverable 6: Guidelines for European Policy Development v.
  99. (1990). Pricing and congestion: economic principles relevant to pricing roads", Oxford Review of Economic Pqlicy, doi
  100. (1963). Pricing and resource allocation in transportation and public utilities",
  101. (1992). Pricing Methods, Working
  102. (1998). Psychological resistance against attempts to reduce private car use", doi
  103. (2000). Public acceptability of traffic demand management and pricing measures in Europe", doi
  104. (1997). Public acceptability of transport pricing",
  105. (1997). Public Acceptance and Technologies for Road PrigLnz,
  106. (1998). Public acceptance of travel demand management measures", paper presented at the International
  107. (1992). Public Attitudes to Road-Use Pricing: A report of a Norwegian Case-Study",
  108. (2000). Public attitudes to TDM measures: a comparative study", doi
  109. (1998). Public attitudes to transport issues: finding from the british social attitudes surveys",
  110. (2001). Public Transport Values of Time, Working doi
  111. (2001). Public valuation of road user charging: selfish and social perspective", presented at the 33dUTSG Annual Conference,
  112. (1986). Qualitative Choice Analysis: Thegy, Econometrics, and Application to Automobile Demand, doi
  113. (2001). Quasi-random maximum simulated likelihood estimation of the mixed multinomial logit model", doi
  114. (1977). Rational fool: a critIque of the behavloral foundations of economic theory",
  115. (1988). Realism and adaptation in designing hypothetical travel choice concepts",
  116. (2001). Recent evidence on car cost and time elasticities of travel demand in Europe",
  117. (1998). Recreation demand models with taste differences over people", doi
  118. (1998). Reflections on stated preference: theory and practice", doi
  119. (1998). Reintroducing attitude theory in travel behaviour research".
  120. (1992). Restraining car traffic in European cities: an emerging role for road pricing", doi
  121. (1962). Restraint of traffic in congested areas", The Town Planning Review,
  122. Road Charging Qptions for London: a Technical Assessment,
  123. (1984). Road pricing - an outside's View of American experiences", doi
  124. (1994). Road pricing for congestion management: A survey of international practice",
  125. (1998). Road pricing for congestion management: the transition from theory to policy",
  126. (1999). Road Pricing in Leeds,
  127. (1992). Road Pricing in London: Review and Specification of Demand Model Elasticities, prepared for The UK Department of Transport,
  128. (1992). Road pricing: an international perspective", doi
  129. (1991). Road Pricing: the Potential for Comparative Monitoring: A Report to the London Planning Adviso[y Committee, Working Paper 329,
  130. (1995). Road pricing: the public viewpoint", doi
  131. (1993). Road Pricing: Theoly and Practice,
  132. (1990). Road user charging: the current state of technology",
  133. (1998). Route Choice Responses to Various Road User Charges and Traffic Information,
  134. (1990). Self-interest, altruism, and health-risk reduction: an economic analysis of voting behavior", doi
  135. (1999). Self-reinforcing motorization: can travel management take us out of the social trap? ", doi
  136. (1982). Selfishness, Altruism, and Rationalily: A Theory of Social Choice, doi
  137. (2000). Simulation as a necessary step In the design of stated preference experiments", Proc pedi as of European Transport Conference: Seminar F,
  138. (2001). Singapore's motorization policies 1969-2000", doi
  139. (1998). Social feasibility of policies to reduce externalities in transport",
  140. (1997). Solving Congestion, Inaugural lecture for the professorship of transport policy
  141. (1924). Some fallacies in the interpretation of social cost", doi
  142. (1955). Some implications of marginal cost pricing for public utilities",
  143. (2001). Spatial and temporal transferability of relationships between travel demand, trip cost and travel time", Transportation Research Part E, doi
  144. (1996). Stated choice experiments with repeated observations",
  145. (2000). Stated Choice Methods: Analysis and AD12lication, doi
  146. (1999). Stated choice valuation of urban traffic air pollution and noise", doi
  147. (1994). Stated preference analysis of travel choice: The state of practice", doi
  148. (1997). Stated preference and the 'ecological fallacy"',
  149. (1991). Stated preference methods and travel demand forecasting: an examination of scale factor problem", doi
  150. (1998). Stated preference studies: the design affects the results", doi
  151. (1990). Stated Preference Techniques: a Guide to Practice, Steer Davies Gleave and Hague
  152. (1995). Stated preference: too much difference'? "I Proceedings 23rd European Transport Forum: Seminar E,
  153. (1975). Supplement licensing: an evaluation",
  154. (2000). Supply curves for urban road networks",
  155. (2000). Surveys, Interviews and Media Analysis - Structure, Questionnaires and Results,
  156. (1997). Targeting travel awareness campaigns: which individuals are more likely to switch from car to other transport for the journey to work? ", Transport policy, doi
  157. (1999). The
  158. (2001). The CfIT Report 2001: Public Attitudes to Transport in England, Commission for Integrated Transport, UK. (available from www.
  159. (1980). The Demand for Public TranWort,
  160. (1996). The Economics of Regulating Road Transport, doi
  161. (2000). The Effect of Fuel Prices of Motorists, AA Motoring Policy Unit and the United Kingdom Petroleum Industry
  162. (2000). The environmental impact of highway congestion piecing", doi
  163. (1998). The Impact of Travel Demand Management on Car-use, MSc Thesis,
  164. (1998). The impacts of different road user charging systems",
  165. (1998). The implications of alternative road pricing systems for transport and for the equity road",
  166. (1995). The importance of the 'ethical voter': an estimate of ; altruism"', doi
  167. (1995). The London Congestion Charging Research Programme: Principal Find*ngs The MVA Consultancy,
  168. (2001). The Major's Transport Strategy, Greater London Authority (GLA), UK (available from www.
  169. (2000). The Politics of Agenda Setting: the Car and the Shaping of Public PoliM
  170. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes,
  171. (2000). The QfIT Report: Public Attitudes to Transport in England, Commission for Integrated Transport,
  172. (1995). The Qptimisation of Integrated Urban Transport Strategies: Tests Based on Edinburgh, Working Paper 425,
  173. (1989). The rule of three: a possible solution to the political problem of competing objectives for road-user pricing",
  174. (1998). The simulation of behaviour in a nonexperienced future: the case of urben road pricing", doi
  175. (1999). The social support for transport measures in passenger transport, a statistics analysis for the Netherlands", Transportation Research Part D, doi
  176. (1994). The Social Valuation of Road Schemes,
  177. (1961). The theory and measurement of private and social cost of highway congestion", doi
  178. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour", doi
  179. (1995). The toll cordons in Norway: an overview", doi
  180. (1987). The Value of Travel Time Savings, doi
  181. (1998). The value of travel time: a review of British evidence",
  182. (1776). The Wealth of the Nations, with an introduction by doi
  183. (1999). Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing", doi
  184. Timmermans (eds. )(1997), Activity-Based Approaches to Travel Analysis,
  185. (1954). Track costs and motor taxation", doi
  186. (1978). Traffic restraint in Singapore", Traffic Engineering and Control,
  187. (1991). Traiisport - the Nem" Realism,
  188. (1985). Transfer price data - its definition, collection and use",
  189. (2000). Transport demand elasticities",
  190. (1999). Transport Initiative - Road User Charging -A PrOROsal for Central London,
  191. (2000). Travel behaviour and environmental concern", doi
  192. (2001). Travel blending: an Australian travel awareness initiative", doi
  193. (1999). Travellers' response to uncertainty: the particular case of drivers' response to imprecisely known tolls and charges,
  194. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior,
  195. (1998). Urban road pricing: public acceptability and barriers to implementation",
  196. (1999). Urban Road Pricing: the Public and Political Acceptability,
  197. (1975). Urban Travel Demand: A Behavioural Analysis, doi
  198. (1992). Using the revenues from congestion pricing", Transportation, doi
  199. (2000). ValuatIon of environmental impacts of transport projects: the challenge of self-interest proximity",
  200. (1997). Valuations of noise, air quality and accessibility: evidence for households and business",
  201. (1998). Value pricing: paying a premium for congestion-free travel",
  202. (2000). Ways and Means to Increase the Acceptance of Urban Road Pricing,
  203. (1988). Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore", doi
  204. (1993). What price roads? Practical issues in the introduction of roaduser charges in historic cities in the UK", Transport Polic ,
  205. (1964). Working Paper 411, Institute for Transport Studies, 202 Ministry of Transport

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.