In this paper, we report a preliminary analysis of the impact of Global Navigation Satellite System Reﬂections (GNSS-R) data on ionospheric monitoring over the oceans. The focus will be on a single polar Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) mission exploiting GNSS-R as well as Navigation (GNSS-N) and Occultation (GNSS-O) total electron content (TEC) measurements. In order to assess impact of the data, we have simulated GNSS-R/O/N TEC data as would be measured from the LEO and from International Geodesic Service (IGS) ground stations, with an electron density (ED) ﬁeld generated using a climatic ionospheric model. We have also developed a new tomographic approach inspired by the physics of the hydrogen atom and used it to effectively retrieve the ED ﬁeld from the simulated TEC data near the orbital plane. The tomographic inversion results demonstrate the signiﬁcant impact of GNSS-R: three-dimensional ionospheric ED ﬁelds are retrieved over the oceans quite accurately, even as, in the spirit of this initial study, the simulation and inversion approaches avoided intensive computation and sophisticated algorithmic elements (such as spatio-temporal smoothing). We conclude that GNSS-R data over the oceans can contribute signiﬁcantly to a Global/GNSS Ionospheric Observation System (GIOS). Index Terms Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Global Navigation Satellite System Reﬂections (GNSS-R), ionosphere, Low Earth Orbiter (LEO), tomography
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