Location of Repository

The contribution of teleworking to travel demand management

By Nasir Sultan Kaisar Rana

Abstract

Continuously increasing demand for travel is contributing to increasing congestion oil roads, especially within the urban settings. The cost of congestion is projected to rise if left unchallenged. Transport planners havee limited options to tackle this situation. While exploring the various impacts of teleworking, this thesis has investigated its potential for travel demand management during the peak periods. By doing so, it seeks to increase the range of policy options to support transport policy objective(s).\ud \ud Teleworking has been studied from various perspectives in the past; however, its impact on commute travel has not been modelled. This thesis has applied a policy analysis based methodology to the study of teleworking impacts. The methodology required bespoke data to estimate an SP model of teleworking adoptin and frequeny, for which a survey was carried out on car commuters to the city centre of Leeds. The survey also explored the employees' attitudes towards teleworking and its other impacts. The result from these aspects of the survey have been presented and analysed.\ud \ud A bespoke demand model of teleworking adoption and frequency has also been estimated from the collected data to predict the teleworking impacts. This model uses telework as a policy measure and evaluates its performance relative to three indicators: reduction in work-based travel, levels of overall car use and car use during the peak. Within an extended framework, the demand model has also been linked to a congestion response function to analyse the system-wide impacts of teleworking.\ud \ud The use of the methodology has shown that it is possible to model telework as a TDNI measure and use it to support transport policy objective(s). The results of the analysis\ud indicate teleworking impact on work-based travel, car use and system performance. The extent of the impacts would depend on the nature of the telework policy, which needs\ud to be clear and well- communicated. Further, the employers also need to address the issue of teleworkability through job redesigns. The study findings show the inadequacy of\ud current teleworking policy and legislation, highlight the need for making telework formally available by the firms to the eligible employees and emphasise the regulator's role in this regard

Publisher: Institute for Transport Studies (Leeds)
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:719

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (0730-0930) Evening eak (1700-1800) No. of Resp ', 'o Relative to Total No. of Resp Relative to Total
  2. 0 Off peak 16-54% -24.0% -13.8% -33.9,,, ) ok) PT 28.53% -24.0% -13.8% 1.7, )",
  3. (2003). 001, 'ImCý ýCtj,,,, I_ý, j ICIII-cil, LIC attitudes: an empirical stud), , Inforinatinti ck299-306 271 Lim Nena
  4. (2003). 003. ) jyb- based study of the propensio to teleworls, ba. ýed on ojý'ýITV_Qhý1011 Will factors.
  5. (2003). 10.2.2 Indirect Methods The UK has no legislation that specifically governs teleNvorking practice and telexx-orker is also not defined in the law. it, however, has some legislation that indirectly supports teleworking.
  6. 10.3.1 Teleworldng Programmes The US le islation on teleworking noted aboN-e initiated a 5-clt%- pilot programme to 91 encourage teleworking for ernissions reduction purposes (L-SDOT
  7. (2007). 10.3.2 Use of Legislation Supporting Telework A recent DTI pohcy review
  8. (2005). 10.3.3.2 Review of Applicability of Car Charing Schemes There are two types of cat sharing schemes (D f F,
  9. (2007). 1111prm-IfIg tile C: 11-), 11)11:: 1CS , , and use of strategic decision making t('01s, I)-Tcr 0 LO be pvcýc: itcd to ,
  10. (1973). 19, -, 0, -fr: vel clioicc bcl-aviour: 111, )LIcls ()f perceptions, feelings, preference and choice",
  11. (1994). 2.6 The case of Teleworking Teleworking can be considered an embodiment of the mteraction of ICT and transport technology, collectively termed as spatial technologies bv Couclelis
  12. (1998). 2.6.2 Use of Teleworldng for Transport Policy Support The discussion about whether ICT can substitute travel has been appearing in transport literature since the 1970s. According to Mokhtarian
  13. (1999). 2.8.1 Demographic Socio-Economic Characteristics and Trends The demographic and socio-econoinic (DSC) characteristics that affect the propensity to telework have also been researched in different studies. For example, Belanger
  14. (1990). 2.8.2 Estimates of Teleworbing Frequency From a travel substitution perspective, the teleworking frequency is more significant. Evidence in the literature for a potential average figure is between 30-40% of a workweek (Yap and Tng
  15. 3.2' o 33 ---111COMC 1 92 2.6' o ll 17 TwCost 143 9 6.3" T4
  16. (1998). 3.5 Table 8-13: VOT figures for selected model variants 195 For overall commuting by different modes in Britain this figLirc is around 8 pence per minute (Wardman,
  17. (2006). 6.7 The Survey Management In doi
  18. (2004). 7&quot;d bý 'I <(*ýjjcjj ', ccord 1894,46-56. Modelfor Scheduliq Trarc/ Tollr, ý-, Transporration ý, -c- Vovsha, Peter, Williain Daý, -idsonand I)crt '(: 05, ý'-'ikili- ,, Ar: the State of the Pracli(v: iAlodclili.,, TOOISjol- ROad 1)17'Cl'; j'
  19. (2006). 9.2.1 The Calibration Procedures During the calibration process, the ASCs of an onginallN- esti-nated model are adjusted to replicate the base shares of the choices it is supposed to predict. The process has a theoretical basis (DfF,
  20. (2006). 9.3.1 A Theoretical Perspective on Model Transfer DfT
  21. (2003). A general criticism of ABA is that it lacks a solid theoretical basis (see e. g. Haraldsson
  22. (2001). A Look il , Alalli-Alo, lal Modelling Possibilities Report, prepared in collaboý, it' )n v-itli 1'1ý, U,, i\-ci-sity (ýý- lxcds, MVA Consultancy andjohn Batc-; Ser\-lcc,;, DaN-id, 'ýimn onck Cons ti L. i ncy, C,, inibi-iLl, -ýc DTI,
  23. (2002). A modelling study doi
  24. (2003). a survey instrumet &quot;- ti I -it to nicasLi, (2 s 11 1ý'c _\ý)p1-')'1c11cS to the estimation of non-use benefits of local Pul), ic t -ail-ýport <(2rviccs, 'ýclccicd Pc. iýiiilgs in Transport Survey
  25. (1997). Ali-aivyim, the Prcfci-(, ncc f(, i- \()iiExclusive Forms of Telecommuting: Modc, 11 atid R)Ii(v hiplic. in(ms',
  26. (2006). Almost all the DSEC variables are in the form of nominal data. For such data the Chisquare test is used to investigate the significance of any relationship (Brace et al,
  27. (2001). An analysis of DSE characteristics of teleworkers in the UK from
  28. (2003). An ýntrodw --Io'l to Systems, MIT) Lecture notes, 'Selýý Oil 06-01-2 -,
  29. (1994). Anatý-sis Is Li( ,ý in S(accd Pi-cfcrcncc Rcscýticli, Proceeding 21 sl PTRC Summer Aii ntml ýý Iec ting, P'J I t )ý oj&quot;J'ele; ork An 11111-odudog Slll(ý
  30. (2001). and ICT pervasiveness in the society is expected to further strain the validity of this tenet in future) and spatio-temporal constraints faced by humans (a theory put forward by Hdgerstrand
  31. (2001). annual rate of 13% in the UK and their ovcmll , Ii, -ire ji, the Nvorkforce is tround 10' However, ONS' definition of teleworking raiscs qLicstionsI 248 An analysis of the available UK data frorn
  32. (1999). Another issue is of the unit of analysis. Some studies focus it from the emploý-ers' perspective while most investigate it from the employee's perspective. See for example Huws et al
  33. (2000). Application of the FSM approach is near universal as it has been 'extensively used and riticisms of extensively criticised'
  34. (1985). are the utilities of car commute, changing departure time, changing mode and teleworking choices 1-4 days per week respectively; Const,
  35. (2003). Bfitain's TI-alliport (47'JZ'S. - Gellill olli qj Jew/: Brit&quot;1111's Future,
  36. Choice Commute by car Change departu e time Change -to alternative mode Teleworking Case No. of Rspndt % of Total No. of Rspndt % of Total No. of Rspndt. of Total No. of Rspndt o/ &quot;0
  37. (1990). Clean Air Act Alllendll,, ý, 11,1, ý- of flic US 9-v cill&quot;, 12nt C. Nc-\N-,,
  38. Cycle M/cycle Car Bus Rail Total
  39. Distributed Returned by each version Remove Employer's Name Survey Versions
  40. (2000). Enhancing Telework, &quot;
  41. (1994). estimated a simultaneous equation system of the consumer demand (in terms of per capita consumption expenditures) for four kinds of goods: private transportation, public transportation, communications, and all others.
  42. (1996). F-1- bias Jue to the i-cpc-ited measurements problem in SP clata&quot; Present-(-I to PI RC Eurnj)(ý. m Foruin
  43. (2003). For example the methodology used to conduct the NOP sun-cNý is not mentioned. It involved interviews with 1,600
  44. (1998). Forecasting Dcm,, ind ý )i Xcv, - Travcl Altcrii;
  45. (1994). found that participants teleworked about 6 days per month on average and there was no significant impact of demographic variables on it.
  46. (1994). Four studies deserve special mention for their significance. Yen et al
  47. (1994). From the same perspective, Yen et al
  48. (2001). Going by the definition of ONS in section 2.6.3, data from the Labour Force Surveý-showed that 2.2 ninon people in the UK (7.4% of the labour force) worked from home at least one day a week using a telephone and computer bý-
  49. (1997). households) to be found at different levels within it. Internal decision processes leading to these responses, as Mokhtarian and Salomon
  50. I Travel cost increases by 100% Car - 1.0 IIA) - 6.5 O/o 6.71 - I. W () -6.8&quot; o 6.80 Time change 13.0% 6.7% 0.51 13.4% 6. K/o 0.51 Mode change 13.00/lo 6.7% 0.51 1 3.40'o 6.8 0
  51. (2004). I'xccrpts frol-, I: SL: 1'v1VA StaWlIcs&quot;, i L11)11ý, ýhcd I)y: slatl).
  52. (2006). Iic 4, iges selected bibliography',
  53. (1997). In a study of potential strategies to cope with congestion, Mokhtarian et al
  54. (1986). In the area of education, ICT has a history of use for remote learning over fairly long distances often stretching over thousands of miles (see e. g. Kerr
  55. (2002). ind Lcd': )ui 2()1, -, )-, Thc Costs W'l i insport On The Environment - The Role Of Tclc\\-(, i, ld-g fn Rc(lLiciii,,, (': ii]), )n 1&quot;1111',
  56. (2002). Internet: invctig-, itill&quot; ric-\v t( -1 b -1111clo-v's cvOlvin&quot; rolc, 11ý)wl-c : 111d 1ý - 1 effects on transport,
  57. (2006). Ix C U111&quot;I&quot;. 11AI-11- &quot; doi
  58. (2007). jo rcjucý-t I- IpION, I-Ilellt md q f the etidence, Britain at Work scmimir scrics, Lmd() Research Department of Trade al-id lndustrý-Fogarty B
  59. Model variants M12 N113 Variable name t t Constant for Changing Time -1.276 -9.0 - 1.3 49 -9.4 Constant for Changing Mode_ -1.567
  60. Model variants M9 M10 Mil Variable name t 3 t 3 t Constant for Changing Time -1-647 -15.3 -1.547 -1D. 1 -1.363 -12.8 Constant for Changing Mode -1.722
  61. Model variants Mi M2 M3 Variable Name p t 13 t P t Constant for Changing Time
  62. (1994). Ncx NX`iyýý of Workin, -, _ in the Information Society: Imogen Bertin -ind _\Iari 1Dei-bi,, _Ji, I lic TelccoLtt,, _, c 3 rd Long Raque _34,1. filý edition 2000) 0ages T'
  63. (2000). New Telecotnlilullicý'ýion) 61 Y 2(8): 1445- 146&quot;).
  64. (2003). On rnodcfl-tti, ýý choice. ind freclLicncy of homebased telecommuting, Transportati(-)n Rc<c,. ), 1-ch Rec )rd, ý,,
  65. (1985). Overall detailed guidance on the principles described above and their application in SP analysis is available in Ben-Akiva and Lerman
  66. (2007). Particular inputs required for the function M (9.2) include frce flo\%- time on the depicted link, peak link flow and peak travel time on the link. For thesc inputs, the relevant data was transferred from the MARS model of Lccds (Shepherd
  67. (1995). Previous studies which used RP data to explore teleworking adoption and/or teleworking frequency, on small samples are MannerMig and Mokhtarian,
  68. (1996). Rate of adoption is prunarily a function of Job suitability, technology availability and diffusion. This means that mformation workers are more amenable to teleworking and their share has been estimated anywhere between 50% and 70% (Handy and Mokhtarian
  69. (2000). Recently an extension to the SP method, called 1ACE (interactive agency choice experiments), has been proposed and empirically tested, incidentally on flexible working practices including teleworking, by Brewer and Hensher
  70. (2002). Recognismg the growing significance of tele-,, vorking, the EU launched its 'Frame\-, -ork Agreement on Telework' in consultation with relei-ant social partners in _I uly -)()0 -) (E-C,
  71. Report Prepared -or the UK [_)arhmen[ý11ý- Wkiice ot- and Technology, University of New Castle ýýpon Ty iý
  72. (1986). Satellite edLication in C. m. icLi t ic Firý rcr, F'olume 14, Pqges 383-386 Keskinen, Auh, Delache, XaN-1er, Crýttddis,
  73. (1990). Sla/ d Prckro, z- -f,,, -I)niq., ies. -
  74. (1997). Stated Prc Fc i-cncc tn I Lcolol(, Icýtl I `, -Aicy, of 25th European Transport Forum. Seminar
  75. (1997). studied similar attitudes through a range of atUtudinal statements (25 in total). They found drives and constraints strongly correlatcd with generally perceived advantages and disadvantages of teleworking respectively. Teo et al
  76. (1997). Surrey County Council launched a fivc-ý, car prograinine airncd at 3500 staff.
  77. (2001). Sustainability Sustainable cities need sustainable transport systems. A sustainable transport system has been defmed (EC,
  78. (1990). Switching the commuting mode could be another possibility. However,
  79. (2003). t-, mbcr 1996,1 mp', icts of cciverbased telecommuting on tn. tvel and ciýitssiori., l Viýil, ýsis ()F the Pw,,, ct ý(, ujid Demonstration Project, al,,, l 1, Issue
  80. (1998). Teclinol(), ý-, ic. i'. clialige a- d soci. il ting: Ale ca-oL' ()f telecommuting as a travcl substitute', Trvl-ýPodalio, --1'. an-1) Parl C. \'olu, nc 6, lss,, ics I2, Pages 17-45 Salomon,
  81. (2000). Telecointilullic-m loll whitc paper prepared for the TRB,
  82. (2000). Thc Activitv-bascý-',. ýPpr(-ch, In: Hcn, ýhcr ind K Button, Editors, Handbook of Pc -,, p. iýi-, ov, I Iscviur,
  83. (1998). the combined impact of ICT and Transport is modifying spatial relationships, redefining the urban space (Shen
  84. (1989). The Demand Side Perspective and an Integrated Approach In their work Goodwin et al
  85. (2002). The impact of ilifý17)1ýwioli , lid lecbno1q_gie. f on distribution patterns: retiew and I\'eporr by 1101) Aý',
  86. (1973). The LUTI Approach The pitfalls of large-scale urban models were convincingly articulated almost three decades ago (Lee,
  87. (1998). The major source of bias and error in an SP exercise emanates from design dimensions (numbers of attributes, levels, alternatives, etc. ) and how the experiment is presented to respondents (Widlert
  88. (2004). The review by B6r)esson (2003) from a Swedish perspective has particularly focused on empirical and behavioural modelling studies and gives an accurate account of most of the major efforts M the field. Walls & Safirova
  89. (1992). The Single Link Model The SLM uses a speed flow relationship which represents all demand and supply in a given area by an aggregate 'single link'. The SLM function is based on empirical research
  90. (2004). There are a few studies showing empirical evidence also. An earlier study (Mitchell and Trodd 1994, cited in Cairns et al,
  91. (1996). These results are largely in line with the earlier literature (see section 2.10.2). For example Koenig et al
  92. (2006). tl Iiistlalýc of 'I ýCht-i()101' stockh('1111, swcCcil, Department of Infrastructure
  93. (2004). Tran, ýbortalllSoý, i*t, lý,, 'I*, -: iiiýport I'V vicws,
  94. (2000). Travc11')e1i-t\-iOr. CO111: ý\C-Jvlý App&quot;'o-aclic> ýý_) Modelling 111C Effects of Information Techiio1(),, -), y on Pcl&quot;ýU I'll UCI-ITS-ASAN institute of Transportation Studies, Univc. rsi[y of C-tif, )viia,
  95. (2001). Trip -ai d in I-Ici, ishcr, D_ F, chtcl, 2001, Perý ,, EdPe TravelBeham'our Research: the Leadilý m,
  96. (1975). Urb,, in tr. i -c' ýiý2r-., ind: North HoHand, Arnsterdarn/Eiscvicr
  97. (1991). Use Impacts This is one of the under-researched areas M the discipline) therefore, significant evidence is lacking. All the available evidence is mentioned starting with studies from the US. Nilles
  98. (2003). What's in a Nanic-. - 1)cký--, ii -liti(': -'s &quot;And ýjls Teleworking and Home,
  99. (2000). Writing on rural areas' potential under the mfluence of ICT, Gruines

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.