Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Effects of fermentation products of silage on its intake by cattle\ud

By Mark Augustus Cole

Abstract

The end-products of silage fermentation have been implicated as factors limiting its intake by ruminant animals, although the contribution of individual chemical\ud components is not clearly understood. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of short-term intra-ruminal infusions of silage fermentation end products on roughage intake by cattle.\ud \ud Infusions of lactic acid, the predominant organic acid found in well preserved silages were found to reduce the short-term intake of roughage by both steers and dairy\ud cows. The short-term intake of hay- and silage- fed steers was reduced by infusions of 32 g lactic acid/kgDMI. The reduction in intake was greater when the acid was infused\ud over two hours as opposed to one hour. The same amount of lactic acid (32 g/kgDMI) reduced the intake of silage fed dairy cows. These results were substantiated by a further\ud experiment in which intra-ruminal infusions of 16, 32 or 48 g lactic acid/kgDMI over a two hour period reduced the short-term intake of silage-fed steers in a dose related\ud manner.\ud \ud The mechanism by which lactic acid reduces intake was not clear from these trials. Infusions of acetic and propionic acids in the molar proportions to which lactic acid is metabolised in the rumen depressed silage intake by dairy cows, but this was attributed to a fall in rumen pH.\ud \ud Urea, used to mimic silage ammonia had no effect on voluntary intake of hayand silage- fed cattle. This supports the theory that rather than ammonia per se limiting\ud intake it is other fermentation end-products, such as silage amines, produced in similar conditions to ammonia that are responsible for poor intakes.\ud \ud Amines were detected in noticeable amounts in silages made at Hurley. The predominant one being gamma amino-n-butyric acid (Gaba). Infusion of Gaba intraruminally, reduced the intake of silage-fed steers by up to 22%. Given in combination with putrescine the depressing effect of intake depression was doubled (44%), although these results were not significant. Physical gut fill was found to have\ud little effect in the limitation of short-term silage intake. Rumen emptying studies showed that the maximum amount of digesta present within the rumen, in terms of DM, OM and NDF occurred after the cessation of the first meal

Publisher: Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology (Leeds)
Year: 1992
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:826

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. 0.0805 NS (There was no effect of omission of data collected from animal #32.) - 108 -Figure 17 K.~ The lJolurr:e of OM (.,/1OOkgLW), OM and and NOF In the rumen at silage fed cows 18 i 1 Hours pest feeding 2 ~ CD .x 8 1.5 a-+- .
  2. (1988). 2. Feeds and feeding Silage, cut on the 24
  3. (1990). 24 -In a series of studies Rook
  4. (1970). A note on the voluntary food consumption and sodium-potassium ratio of sheep after shearing. doi
  5. (1988). Absorbents Absorbents can be added to silages, particularly those that are not wilted or where acid additives are added to reduce the problems of pollution from effluent associated with these silages (Wilkinson,
  6. (1963). Acid detergent fibre (ADF) ADF determinations were made by the same methods ofVan Soest,
  7. (1970). Additions at levels of 26.9 g/kg DM, 60.5 g/kgDM, and 171.5 g/kgDM of 80% lactic acid to a mixed sward of grass silage reduced the intake of5 month old sheep by 53.5%, 57.7% and 78% respectively in relation to the control (McLeod et aI,
  8. (1982). Alcohols Ethanol and propanol present in silage extract were quantified after gas chromatographic separation on a packed column of SP1200 on Chromsorb W-AW (Jouany,
  9. (1977). All these results differ from the work of Morgan and L'Estrange
  10. Amine content (mg/kgDM)
  11. (1964). Amines, aldehydes and keto-acids in silages and their effect on food intake by ruminants. doi
  12. (1940). amino acid produced Tyrosine Tyramine S. faecalis Gale
  13. (1987). Amino acids and ammonia. The role ofamino acids as feedback signals in the control of intake of non-ruminant animals has been implied, since injections ofL-Iysine into the portal vein ofchickens (Rusby et aI,
  14. (1987). and methods Twenty three rumen fluid samples that were taken from the lactating dairy cows during experiment 3.2 and had previously been centrifuged, acidified and analysed for VFA concentrations by a method of
  15. (1975). Application of near infrared spectroscopy to the analysis of cereal grains and oilseeds.
  16. (1976). Approximately 100 samples are needed to test and calibrate an NIRS instrument successfully (Shenk et aI,
  17. (1982). Because of the high proportion of non-protein N of silage being in a soluble form, it is rapidly degraded in the rumen giving rise to pronounced ammonia patterns (Thomas,
  18. c 0 l1 .-'0 v -oJ. 2 ;; u -0.4 ..0 l Oll Iso :00) 220 Wavelength (nm) - 145 -Figure 31 Changes in NIR spectra of rumen fluid with t i me -
  19. (1988). Change in importance of physical and physiological factors with increasing digestibility.
  20. (1979). Changes during ensiling in the nitrogenous components of fresh and additive treated ryegrass and lucerne, doi
  21. (1973). Collaborative study on acid- detergent fibre and lignin. doi
  22. (1976). Commission of the European Community - doi
  23. (1988). Concentrate feeding and milk composition. In Recent Developments in Ruminant Nutrition (Eds W. Haresign and D.J.A. doi
  24. (1986). CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE Voluntary food intake (VFI) is the total amount offood eaten during a given period of time by an animal offered feed ad libitum (Forbes,
  25. (1955). Decarboxylation leading to formation of amines, which have not only been shown to have a role in the limitation of silage intake by ruminants but in addition are potentially toxic to animals (Dain et aI,
  26. (1981). Determination of plant cell-wall doi
  27. (1964). Digestibility Thedigestibilityofthe dry matter ofa feed has been shown to be positively correlated to intake below 0.67 and negatively correlated above 0.67 for dairy cows of moderate lactation (Conrad ~,
  28. (1965). Direct spectrophotometric determination of moisture content of grain and seeds.
  29. (1963). Effect of intraruminal infusion ofvolatile fatty acids and lactic acid on voluntary food intake.
  30. (1989). Effect of rumen ammonia concentration on silage intake of cows.
  31. (1973). Effect of type of forage harvester and chopping fineness on the feeding value of silage.
  32. (1983). Effects of methods of processing dried grass and including barley in supplementation of grass silage given ad libitum. doi
  33. (1978). Enterobacteriaceae ferment sugars to predominantly acetic and formic acids. In addition there is evidence that they are capable of deamination and decarboxylation of amino acids (Beck,
  34. (1975). Estrous and related behaviour in post partum cows.
  35. (1990). Evaluation and prediction ofthe nutritive value ofpastures and forages. In FeedstuffEvaluation
  36. (1979). Factors influencing aerobic deterioration of silages and changes in chemical composition after opening silos. doi
  37. (1959). Fat cattle tend to eat less than thin cattle (Mather,
  38. (1970). Feed intake during volatile fatty acid injections into four gastric areas.
  39. (1986). Feeding frequency for lactating cows: effects on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites and hormones. doi
  40. (1986). Following ingestion of silage the initial increase in total VFA concentration in the rumen occurred more rapidly than with hay, and similar results were reported by Thiago and Gill
  41. (1965). Forages tend to be bulky fibrous foods that impose a physical limit on voluntary intake. Van Soest
  42. (1981). Glucostatic theory Circulating levels of glucose have been implicated in the control ofvoluntary intake in non-ruminant animals. Infusions ofglucose into the portal vein ofchickens (Shurlock and Forbes,
  43. (1962). Growth and fattening The intake of a growing animal increases as it grows, although there is a decline in the amount offood eaten in relation to metabolic liveweight as the animal gets larger. Blaxter
  44. (1972). Histadine decarboxylase-less mutants of Lactobacillus 30a: Isolation and growth properties.
  45. (1969). Hypothalamic hyperthagia in goats and some observations of its affect on glucose utilisation rate.
  46. (1986). In the light of previous work and from his own findings, De long
  47. (1991). Infrared reflectance spectroscopy: A survey of wavelength selection to determine DM digestibility.
  48. (1986). It was evident that the amount ofdigesta in the rumen peaked at 18:00 in terms
  49. (1963). Lactation In general the intake oflactating cows is higher than the intake ofnon-lactating cows (Hutton,
  50. (1983). Lactic acid Lactic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism ofcarbohydrates and whilst on most diets the halflife oflactic acid is relatively short, about 25 minutes, (Chamberlain et al'
  51. (1980). Lactic acid was added (for method of mixing see Section B) to the silage at two levels, either 30 g/kgDM (a similar level to the amount infused per kg consumed in experiment 2) or 50 g/kgDM (the level used by Thomas et al
  52. (1990). Linear regression analysis. doi
  53. (1953). Lipostatic control In the case of most adult animals a constant body weight is maintained despite changes in food quality (Kennedy,
  54. (1988). Near infrared spectroscopy in food analysis. doi
  55. (1967). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) NDF was determined by the method of Van Soest and Wine
  56. (1949). Obesity in albino mice due to single injections ofgold thioglucose.
  57. (1967). On areas ofthe stomach that are sensitive to formic acid and histamine. doi
  58. (1964). On the influence of the atomic grouping in the molecules of organic bodies on their absorption in the infra-red region of the spectrum. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Soc.. doi
  59. One Two Three S.E.M.
  60. (1978). Only 0.37 of the"organic matter intake of sheep could be attributed to ammonia-N
  61. (1970). Osmolality of rumen contents Ternouth and Beattie
  62. (1988). Poorlypreserved silages are eaten to a lesser extent than well preserved silages. Sheep fed one of3 silages ate a similar amount ofeach. When given free access to choose between the three, they ate considerably less of the poor quality silage (Forbes,
  63. (1972). Pregnancy and oestrus The intake of monogastric animals increases during pregnancy on account of the increase in nutrient demand. The intake of both heifers (penzhorn and Meintjes,
  64. (1966). Preliminary observations of the effect, on the voluntary intake of hay, of the changes in the amount of reticulo-ruminal contents.
  65. (1981). Principle and ridge regression analyses.
  66. (1972). Reduction of forage particle size Grinding (Wilkins et aI,
  67. (1970). Regulation of food intake in ruminants. 7. Interrelationships between food intake and body temperature.
  68. (1964). Regulation offood intake in dairy cows.
  69. (1989). Results and discussion The spectra were treated with the mathematical transformations of standard normal variate (SNV) and de-trending (Barnes et aI,
  70. (1959). Rumen fill It has been hypothesised that ruminants eat to similar levels of fill in the reticulorumen at the end of a meal when offered different roughages ad libitum (Kruger and Muller,
  71. (1968). Rumen fluid pH The pH of the rumen fluid per se may be responsible for the cessation of a meal rather than the increased presence ofanyone particular acid in the rumen fluid. Bhattacharya and Warner
  72. (1971). s. Nutrients Nutrient additives contribute to the nutritional needs of the animals consuming the silage (Owen,
  73. (1975). Sensory nervous receptors in the ruminant stomach and the reflex control of reticulo-ruminal motility.
  74. (1981). Short and long term effects of eating on blood composition in free feeding goats. doi
  75. (1975). showed that chemoreceptors are present in the anterior rumen and reticulum, the activity ofwhich is changed by the pH ofrumen fluid whatever acid is applied (Chritchlow and Leek,
  76. (1979). Silage and milk production: comparisons betwen grass silage of three different chop lengths. Grass and Forage Sci., doi
  77. (1978). Silage intake is improved by chopping ofthe grass prior to ensiling. Deswysen et al
  78. (1989). Standard normal variate transformation and de-trending of near-infra red diffuse reflectance spectra. doi
  79. (1981). Starch In experiment 3 the compound feeds were analysed using the method ofWainman et - 42 -al
  80. (1962). Studies on the carbohydrate metabolism of sheep. 17. Feed requirements and voluntary food intake in late pregnancy, with particular reference to preventing hypoglycaemia and hyperketonaemia. doi
  81. (1981). studies, discussed in more detail in Section IV.C.2., statistical correlations ofdigestibilityand intake ofsilage have been found to be positivelyrelated (Lewis,
  82. (1988). Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering,
  83. (1975). The Canadian Grain Commission were one of the first groups to use NIRS commercially as a standard analytical tool. In
  84. (1988). The depression in intake following the infusion of AP was similar to the results obtained by Mbanya
  85. (1968). The effect of histamine combined with formic and acetic acid on food intake and rumen motility when infused into the rumen of a ram. doi
  86. (1984). The effect of using a programmable out-of-parlour feeder for dairy cows.
  87. (1978). The effect ofsilage chop length on the voluntary intake and rumination behaviour ofsheep.
  88. (1986). The effects of endocrine changes in late pregnancy may reduce intake. Following injection with 10 mg of 17 beta-oestradiol ewes took 2 weeks to recover to the same level of intake recorded prior to treatment (Forbes,
  89. (1982). The effects of lighting patterns on growth, lactation and food intake of sheep, cattle and deer. Livestock Prod. doi
  90. (1972). The effects of long-term ad-libitum feeding on the voluntary intake, body weight, body composition and adipose tissue morphology of lean adult sheep. Reproduction Nut. doi
  91. (1986). The effects of supplementation on silage intake Phipps
  92. (1984). The effects of wilting and mechanical treatment of grass prior to ensiling on the performance of beef cattle output per hectare. doi
  93. (1981). The importance of pH in relation to the acidexcitation ofepithelial receptors in the reticulo-rumen ofsheep.
  94. (1986). The level of rumen digesta DM of the silage fed steers never reached that of the hay fed steers (fhiago and Gill,
  95. (1983). The method by which lactic acid reduces voluntary intake is unclear. Lactic acid is known to have a relatively short half life in the rumen of 25 minutes
  96. (1988). The mode of action oflactic acid in reducing voluntary intake is unclear. It has been reported that reticulo-ruminal epithelial receptors are activated by VFA's after exposure of the luminal surface to DL-Iactic acid (Critchlow,
  97. (1987). The mode ofaction ofosmolality in limiting intake is not clearly understood. Gregory
  98. (1974). The pH of the rumen fluid was unaffected by infusions of amines. At all times it remained above 6.5 and above the value of 5.0 below which feed intake is severely reduced (Baile and Forbes,
  99. (1979). The prediction ofvoluntary feed intake ofdairy cows.
  100. (1940). The relationship between the voluntary intake offood, the amount ofdigesta in the reticulo-rumen and the rate ofdisappearance ofdigesta from the alimentary tract with diets of hay, dried grass or concentrates.
  101. (1982). The results ofthis experiment are in general agreement with the work of BuchananSmith. Forty grams of Gaba infused intra-ruminally depressed the intake ofsheep fed alfalfa pellets although not significantly (Buchanan-Smith,
  102. (1983). The role of acetic and propionic acids in VFI have been discussed in detail earlier (Section III.E.1). Lactic acid is the predominant acid found in well preserved silages and can occur at levels of up to 180 g/kg DM (Chamberlain et aI,
  103. (1953). The role of depot fat in the hypothalamic control of food intake in the rat. doi
  104. (1961). The role of metabolites in intake control In the early 1960's it was becoming apparent that factors apart from physical fill were important in regulating the voluntary intake of roughages. Work by Blaxter et al
  105. (1989). The silage was cut on 19
  106. (1990). The silage was cut on the 21
  107. (1983). The total amount of lactic acid administered with infusion H was in excess of the maximum value likely to be encountered on a high lactic acid silage, 180 g/kgDM (Chamberlain et aI,
  108. (1985). The utilisation of maize silage for intensive beef production 3. Nitrogen and acidity as factors affecting the nutritive value of ensiled maize. doi
  109. (1972). The voluntary intake and digestibility by cattle and sheep of dried grass wafers containing particles of different size. doi
  110. (1979). These are not inhibited by acid conditions and can occur in silages at levels up to lOS organisms per gram (Ohyama et aI,
  111. (1965). These results are in partial contradiction to those of Simkins et al
  112. (1961). This contrasts with the work of Campling and Balch
  113. (1964). This is at the top end of the range (0.67) at which Conrad et al
  114. (1978). This is supported by Barry et al
  115. (1948). This was first suggested by Brobeck
  116. (1971). Urea was used in this trial to mimic the effects of additions of ammonia. Ammonia can occur in silages at levels up to 200 glkg total-N and high concentrations have been negatively correlated with low intakes ofsheep (Wilkins et ai,
  117. (1967). Use of detergents in the analysis offibrous feeds.
  118. (1963). Use ofdetergents in the analysis offibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fibre and lignin.
  119. (1982). Volatile fatty acid and alcohol determination in digestive contents, silage juice, bacterial cultures and anaerobic fermenter contents.
  120. (1960). Volatile fatty acids Work to investigate the role of the three primary organic acids produced as endproducts of digestion as signals of satiety began in the early 1960's. Thomas
  121. (1984). Volkenrode sonderheft,
  122. (1982). Voluntary intake in ruminants affected by silage extracts and amines

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.