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Air entrainment and turbulent fluctuations in hydraulic jumps

By H. Wang and H. Chanson

Abstract

A hydraulic jump is the sudden transition from a high-velocity impinging flow into a turbulent roller in an open channel. Substantial amounts of air are entrapped at the impingement point, and significant free-surface fluctuations take place above the roller. In the present study, some physical modelling was conducted in a relatively large sized facility. The flow conditions included a wide ranges of inflow Froude numbers and Reynolds numbers (3.8 Fr-1 < 10.0, 2.1x10(4) Re < 1.6x10(5)). The fluctuating features of free-surface and roller position were investigated non-intrusively with a series of acoustic displacement meters. The characteristic frequencies of the fluctuating motions were documented, and some major roller surface deformation patterns were revealed. The air-water flow properties were investigated with an intrusive phase-detection probe. The void fraction and bubble count rate data were documented in the jump roller, together with the interfacial velocity distributions. The rate of air entrainment was estimated based upon the void fraction and interfacial velocity distribution data. Some simultaneous measurements of instantaneous void fraction and free-surface fluctuations as well as longitudinal jump front oscillations were conducted. The relationship between the rate of air entrainment and turbulent fluctuations is discussed. Both the turbulent fluctuation and aeration properties are basic design parameters in urban water systems in which a hydraulic jump may take place. The present work provides relevant information for water systems including covered channels and partially-filled pipes

Topics: Hydraulic jumps, Air bubble entrainment, Turbulent fluctuations, Free surface profile, Free surface fluctuations, Air entrainment rate, Air water flow measurements, 2312 Water Science and Technology, 3305 Geography, Planning and Development
Publisher: Taylor and Francis
Year: 2015
DOI identifier: 10.1080/1573062X.2013.847464
OAI identifier: oai:espace.library.uq.edu.au:UQ:365319

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