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A critical investigation of the opposition of the Rifi confederation led by Muhammed bin 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi to Spanish colonial expansion in northern Morocco, 1920-1925, and its political and social background\ud

By Charles Edmund Richard Pennell


This thesis examines the course and political\ud action of the war in the Rif mountains in northern Morocco\ud between 1921 and 1926.\ud \ud After the declaration of a joint Franco-Spanish\ud Protectorate over Morocco in 1912, the Spanish army\ud attempted to impose its authority over the part of north\ud Morocco which was included in its zone. After the end of\ud the First World War the Spanish were opposed in their\ud efforts by a slowly growing coalition of tribes in the\ud central Rif mountains. After the emergence of Mubammad\ud bin 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattdbl as leader of the coalition,\ud it was able to inflict a series of military defeats on the\ud Spanish in the summer of 1921, a success which led to the'\ud expansion of the coalition and, in 1923, to the announcement\ud of an independent state in the Rif under the leadership of\ud bin 'Abd al-Karim.\ud \ud This state was able to defeat another Spanish army\ud in 1924 and, in 1925, to inflict a series of defeats upon\ud the French army in that, country's zone of Protectorate,\ud before an alliance between France and Spain crushed the new\ud state in 1926.\ud \ud Previous work has concentrated more on the\ud military aspects of the conflict from a European point of\ud view, and examination of the Moroccan side has dwelt almost\ud exclusively on the personality of the Rifi leader, bin 'Abd\ud al-Karim. This thesis, however, is concerned with the\ud political and social aspects of the war from the Moroccan\ud point of view. While it recognises the importance of bin\ud 'Abd al-Karim, it tries to explain his role in terms of his\ud political position in Rifi society as'a whole. It examines\ud his political, social. and religious reforms'l not only from\ud the point of view of their importance in the overall--\ud movement for Islamic reform, but also from that of their\ud practical necessity and effects

Publisher: Arabic & Middle Eastern Studies (Leeds)
Year: 1979
OAI identifier:

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