Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Clostridium difficile and its toxins

By Saleem Hafiz


An investigation of Clostridium difficile has shown :\ud \ud 1. that the organism is resistant to cresols and phenolq\ud and may be grown from material grossly contaminated with\ud other organisms by culture in media containing these\ud substances; strains isolated before this method was\ud evised are also resistant to cresols and phenol;\ud \ud 2. that the organism divides into four daughter cells;\ud \ud 3. that each strain examined has a different strain specific\ud agglutinogen, and that the strains are otherwise\ud antigenically complex;\ud \ud 4. that the sugar reactions are fairly consistent\ud \ud 5. that gelatin is liquefied by all available strains in\ud three weeks; and that apart from this there is no\ud proteolytic activity\ud \ud 6. that the hyaluronidase produced by all strains is\ud antigenically uniform? and so is the lethal toxin;\ud \ud 7. and that the 'haemolysin' is almost certainly complex

Publisher: Faculty of Biological Sciences (Leeds)
Year: 1974
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1932). 1 Factors*influencing the reduction of nitrate and nitrite by bacteria in semi solid media.
  2. (1962). 1 Occurrence of Clostridium difficile in infections of man.
  3. (1948). 1 On the role of a variable -generation time in the development of a stochastic birth process. ' doi
  4. (1970). 1 Resistogram typing -a epidemiological tool : application to Escherichia coli. doi
  5. 1 Soluble bacterial antigens as discriminants in classification "I Symp.
  6. (1956). 1 Spore formation by ClostrAium species in artificial medium. doi
  7. (1943). 1 Studies on diffusing factors. Method of assay of hyaluronidases and their correlation with skin diffusion activity.
  8. (1969). 1 Techniques for electron microscopy' 2nd Edition, doi
  9. (1942). 1 The examination of cervical smears as. doi
  10. (1962). A model for the statistics of the cell division process.
  11. (1956). A rapid method for determining the proportion of viable bacteria in culture'. doi
  12. (1970). A study of the carbohydrate fermentation reactions of Clostridium Oedematiens (Cl. doi
  13. (1958). Ah outline of the pattern of bacterial generation times'. doi
  14. (1964). Anaerobic Bacteriology in Clinical Medicine.. 2nd edition ,
  15. (1963). Bacterial elastases'. doi
  16. (1947). Biological significance of hyaluronic acid
  17. (1969). Changes in physical properties of stored erythrocytes.
  18. (1969). Clostridia of wound infection. ' Butterworthst London.
  19. (1936). Coloration des cils bact6riens par un procede simple-'
  20. (1950). Crystalline desoxyribonuclease : Digestion of thymys nucleic acid (desoxy ribonucleic acid) the kinetic of the reaction.
  21. (1963). Differentiation of Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei by the use of fluorescent labelled antibodies. ' doi
  22. (1943). Early diagnosis of wound infection (with special reference to gas-gangrene Lancet, doi
  23. (1968). Errors in the technique of intraperitoneal injection of mice.
  24. (1960). flora of some antarctic birds 311 -'Studies on anaerobic bacteria 6o,
  25. (1937). Further studies on Bacillus difficilis (Hall and O'Toole). " doi
  26. (1962). generation rate. ' 2T. Cell Res. 26, I Normal distribution of cell 439. doi
  27. (1963). Generation times of individual bacteria some corroborative measurements'. doi
  28. (1948). Haemolysin and related phenomenon'.
  29. (1941). Haemolysis and the production of opalesence in serum and lecithovitellin by the alpha toxin of Clostridium welchii. doi
  30. (1961). ImmUnityl. 2nd. edition published by Appleton-Century-Crofts,
  31. (1970). Immunology of bacterial protein toxins' Microbial Toxins 1,389, doi
  32. (1186). Les microbes anaerobies. 1 Masson et cie.,
  33. (1934). lIsolation of an obligately anaerobic bacillus from the faeces of newborn infants and from other human sources, and its probable identity with the Kopfchenbakterien of Escherich, Rodella's Bacillus III and Bacillus paraputrificus (Bienstock).
  34. (1966). Manual for the classification and determination of the anaerobic bacteria'. 1st. American edition,
  35. (1965). Manual for the identificatioD df medical bact6ria. 1
  36. (1962). marked with * directly refer to Cl. difficile
  37. (1943). means of rapid diagnosis in severe Clostridium welchii in'fections following abortion.
  38. (1951). New techniques for the study of growing microorganisms'.
  39. (1942). Nitrate, nitrite and indole reactions of gas gangrene anaerobes'.
  40. (1908). Note on the concentration of diphtheria toxin'.
  41. (1954). On the metabolism of an amino acid fermenting Clostridium.
  42. (1937). Phenol resistance of Staphlococcus aureus'.
  43. (1966). Production and -characteristics of haemolysins of Escherichia coli. doi
  44. (1941). Rapid identification of gas gangrene anaerobes'. doi
  45. (1956). Rapid isolation of Clostridium by selective inhibition of aerobic floral.
  46. (1960). Rapid methods for the identification of Clostridia.
  47. (1968). Rapid plate method for screening Hyaluronidase and Chondroitin Sulfatase -producing microorganisms.
  48. (1970). Relative Toxicities and assay systems.
  49. (1954). Selective inhibitors in the rapid isolation of clostridia from wounds.
  50. (1936). Semisolid media for cultivation and identification of the sporulating anaerobes.
  51. (1963). Serology of the soluble antigens of pathogenic Clostridia.
  52. (1969). Some factors affecting production and assay of Escherichia coli haemolysin. doi
  53. (1955). Some features of the generation times of individual bacteria'. doi
  54. (1955). Studies of toxins of Clostridium botulinum 1 relation of autolysis to toxin production. doi
  55. (1933). Studies on certain spreading factor exixting in bacteria and its significance for bacterial invasiveness. 1 doi
  56. (1943). Suggested method for use of vanillin as a test reagent for indole and skatole production by bacteria'.
  57. (1951). The Acra test as a means of. estimating hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease and their antibodies'. doi
  58. (1971). The amino acid fermenting clostridia. doi
  59. (1946). The anaerobic bacterial flora of Clostridial myosistis'.
  60. (1972). The Deoxyribonuclease and Hyaluronidases of Clostridium se ticum and Cl. chauvoei. 1. An agar plate method for testing-'for deoxyribonuclease.
  61. (1972). The deoxyribonuleases and hyaluronidases of Clostridium septicum and Cl. Chauvoeit ii. An agar plate method for testing for hyaluronidasel.
  62. (1956). The effect of Redox potential on the growth of Clostridium welchii strains isolated from horse muscle. doi
  63. (1963). The haemolysins of Escherichia coli'. doi
  64. (1952). The haemolytic activity of Bact. doi
  65. (1941). the hyaluronidase culture filtrates, permeability. '
  66. (1972). The immune response in a patient to an infection with Bacteroides fragilis sub species fragilis and Clostridium difficile. 1 Acta Path. doi
  67. (1948). The Kappa and Lambda Antigens of Clostridium welchii. doi
  68. (1971). The localization of bacterial antigen by the use of the fluorescent and ferritin labelled antibody techniques'. doi
  69. (1948). The mucinase of V. cholerae-I doi
  70. (1932). The nature of the vaccinia floculation reaction and observation on the -elementary bodies of vaccinia. 1
  71. (1957). The normal faecal flora of infants between two weeks and one year of age. "
  72. (1943). The protective properties of alpha antitoxin and theta antihaemolysin occurring in Clostridium welchi type A antiserum. 1
  73. (1942). The quantitative determination of influenza virus and antibodies by means of red cell agglutination. doi
  74. (1959). The soluble antigens of Clostridium Oedematiens Type D (Cl. haemolyticum)'. doi
  75. (1931). The t4 intracutaneous method of testing the toxin and an . toxin of the gas gangrene organisms. doi
  76. (1957). The use of sulphonamides to inhibit the swarming of Proteus. doi
  77. (1966). Topley and Wilson's principles of Bacteriology and Immunity. doi
  78. (1971). Toxin- antitoxin assay, doi
  79. (1970). toxins vol. I, II, III, passim, doi
  80. (1968). Zinsser Microbiology' 14th edition Appleton- CenturyCrofts,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.