Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Variation in the Educated Spoken Arabic of Iraq : A sociolinguistic study

By Raad Shakir Abdul-Hassan


In this sociolinguistic study an attempt is made to relate\ud different levels of use of variant features of Educated Spoken Arabic (ESA) of Iraq to speakers' attitudes, and to link these variables with sex and regional differences in a group of informants. The informants are a number of educated Iraqis who are available in the U. K.\ud \ud In the study of language attitude the methods used involved\ud a questionnaire on attitudes and an analysis of subjects'\ud reaction to samples of ESA containing the variant features to be studied which used semantic differential technique. Factor analysis was adopted as a data analysis device.\ud \ud In the attitude study a presentation of the attitudes of\ud the informants towards different regional speech styles, of\ud Iraq, was provided. The study showed significant differences\ud between the attitudes of the male and the female informants\ud as well as among the informants who belong to the three regions of Iraq.\ud \ud The second part of the study investigated the distribution\ud of chosen phonological variables. The effect of the sex and\ud the region of the speakers on their choice of standard /\ud stigmatized (colloquial) variants was studied.\ud \ud The methodology adopted in this part involved recordings\ud of unprepared and unscripted speech by the informants discussing various informal topics. The data analysis involved the use of a text analysis package, Oxford Concordance Program (OCP).\ud \ud The study established that the male speakers chose more\ud standard and less stigmatized variants than the female\ud speakers. This result contrasted with the findings of some\ud studies which have been conducted in the western world but\ud agreed with other studies conducted in similar Arab speech\ud communities. The study also revealed some differences among\ud speakers from different regions in the choice of the variants

Publisher: Linguistics & Phonetics (Leeds)
Year: 1988
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1969). A basic course in Iraqi Arabic, doi
  2. (1944). A basis for scaling quantitative data", doi
  3. (1974). A simple systematics for the organization of turn-taking in conversation", doi
  4. (1967). A social psychology of bilingualism", doi
  5. (1981). A sociolinguistic study of the Arabic-speaking speech community of Bahrain: language variation in relation to sect membership, region, and literacy, unpublished Ph.
  6. (1968). A1-tawzi9 al-lughawi al-. jugrafi fi al-9iraa. Cairo: Ma9had al-buhuth wal-dirasat al-arabiyya.
  7. (1979). Accommodation Theory: Optimal Levels of Convergence",
  8. (1976). Al- lugha al-9arabiyya fi itariha al-i jtima9i, Beirut: ma9had al-inma'
  9. (1982). An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes towards language variation",
  10. (1975). Analysing variation in language, Washington: doi
  11. (1981). Arabs communicating: a sociolinguistic approach", The incorporated linguist,
  12. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax , doi
  13. (1982). Attitudes towards language variation: social and applied contexts, doi
  14. (1977). Attitudes towards the language of science teaching at secondary level in Jordan", Linguistics, doi
  15. (1971). Attitudinal correlates of children's speech characteristics",
  16. (1978). Belfast: change and variation in an urban vernacular", in Trudgill
  17. (1979). Beyond Initial Interaction: Uncertainty, Understanding, and the Development of Interpersonal Relationships",
  18. (1979). Class analysis of Iraqi society",
  19. (1964). Communal dialects in Baghdad, doi
  20. (1979). Concordial ý
  21. (1960). Contributions to Arabic Linguistics, doi
  22. (1959). Diglossia", Word,
  23. (1969). Diglossic bilingualism in Iran, unpublished MPhil thesis,
  24. (1979). Dimension of style in a grammar of Educated Spoken Arabic",
  25. (1980). Educated Spoken Arabic and the Arabic language continuum" , Arch i vum Li ngui sti cum, 1112 (new series),
  26. (1977). Educated Spoken Arabic in Egypt and the Levant :a critical review of diglossia and related concepts",
  27. (1978). Educated Spoken Arabic in Egypt and the Levant, with special reference to participle and tense", doi
  28. (1960). Evaluative reactions to spoken language",
  29. (1969). Factor analysis of meaning", doi
  30. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics: an ethnographic approach, doi
  31. (1968). Historical background of modern social psychology",
  32. (1971). Implicational scales and sociolinguistic linearity", doi
  33. (1984). Iraq: eastern flank of the Arab world, doi
  34. (1976). Iraq: physical and social geography" in Fisher
  35. (1982). Iraq: the contemporary state,
  36. (1972). Journal of Experimental social psychology, doi
  37. (1972). Language and social context: selected readings. doi
  38. (1980). Language and social networks, doi
  39. (1979). Language and social psychology, doi
  40. (1984). Language and society, doi
  41. (1979). Language as a factor in intergroup relations".
  42. (1970). Language attitudes studies: a brief survey of methodological approaches".
  43. (1974). Language attitudes, 1", Linguistics,
  44. (1975). Language attitudes, 2", Linguistics,
  45. (1979). Language shift: social determinants of ling uistic change in bilingual Austria, doi
  46. (1985). Linguistic change, social network and speaker innovation", doi
  47. (1978). Linguistic code switching in a northern Irish village", in Trudgill
  48. (1978). Linguistic variation: models and methods, doi
  49. (1929). Maps of Iraq: with notes to visitors, Baghdad: government of Iraq.
  50. (1971). Methodology", in
  51. (1968). Modern factor analysis, (second edition),
  52. (1973). Mustawayaat il9arabiyya ilmu9aasira fi Misr.
  53. (1966). National sociolinguistic profile forCONSULTED REFERENCES 275 mulas",
  54. (1973). New ways of analysing variation in English, Washington: doi
  55. (1982). North east Arabian dialects, doi
  56. (1987). Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A critical account of sociolinguistic method, doi
  57. (1973). On what basis variable rules? ",
  58. (1980). Oxford Concordance Program: users' manual,
  59. (1980). Phonological variation in Bahraini Arabic: the [j] and [y] allophones of /j/",
  60. (1980). Phonological variation in Educated Spoken Arabic: a study of the uvular and related types",
  61. (1976). Regional and social factors in the dialect geography of southern Iraq and Khuzistan", doi
  62. (1976). Replies and responses",
  63. (1978). RPaccented female speech : the voice of perceived androgyny? ",
  64. (1982). SAS user guide: statistics,
  65. (1969). Semantic differential technique: a sourcebook, Chicago: Aldine publishing company. doi
  66. (1980). Sex stereotypes and social judgment", doi
  67. (1979). Social markers in Speech, Cambridge: doi
  68. (1982). Social network and linguistic focusing", in Romaine
  69. (1965). Social psychology, London: Collier-Mac(1986) Social psychology, (second edition),
  70. (1982). Social stereotypes and judgment of individuals: an instance of base-rate fallacy", doi
  71. (1978). Sociolinguistic patterns in British English, doi
  72. (1972). Sociolinguistic Patterns, doi
  73. (1982). Sociolinguistic variation in speech communities,
  74. (1974). Sociolinguistic variation in spoken Egyptian Arabic: a re-examination of the concept of diglossia, unpublished
  75. (1979). Sociolinguistics and social psychology: an introductory essay", in Giles and St. Clair
  76. (1980). Sociolinguistics, doi
  77. (1971). Sociolinguistics: A brief introduction, doi
  78. (1974). Sociolinguistics: an introduction,
  79. (1976). Sociolinguistics: goals approaches, and problems,
  80. (1973). Some research notes on dialect attitudes and stereotypes",
  81. (1973). Some unexpected reactions to various American-English dialects",
  82. (1985). Statistics in Linguistics,
  83. (1973). Stereotyped attitudes of selected English dialect communities",
  84. (1969). Stereotypes and Semantic Space", doi
  85. (1980). Stereotyping: from prejudice to prediction", doi
  86. (1960). Stylistic variation in spoken Arabic :a sample of interdialectal conversation" in Ferguson
  87. (1975). Subjective reactions to various speech styles in Egypt", doi
  88. (1978). The development and distribution of the Arabic sound 'Qaf' in Iraq",
  89. (1982). The emancipation of Iraqi women", in Niblock
  90. (1973). The essentials of factor analysis, doi
  91. (1980). The influence of Topic and other Factors on language selection: a microcosmic example",
  92. (1980). The Linguistic situation in Kirkuk, unpublished Ph.
  93. (1969). The logic of non-standard English",
  94. (1969). The measurement of Meaning", doi
  95. (1969). The nature and measurement of meaning",
  96. (1975). The necessity of variable rules",
  97. (1978). The role of Arabic in present-day Arab society", in Al-Ani
  98. (1966). The social stratification of English in doi
  99. (1974). The social stratification of English in Norwich, Cambridge:
  100. (1984). The sociolinguistics of society, doi
  101. (1972). The sociology of language", in Giglioli
  102. (1981). The status of variable rules in sociolinguistic theory",
  103. (1985). Variable rules, O. K.? or can there be sociolinguistic grammars? ", doi
  104. (1973). Variation and linguistic theory, Arlington: Centre for Applied Linguistics.
  105. (1978). Variation in the demonstrative system in educated spoken Arabic",
  106. (1975). Various objections to various variable rules", in Fasold and Shuy
  107. (1973). What do implicational scales imply? ",
  108. (1986). What is educated Spoken Arabic? ",

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.