Location of Repository

Novel studies of the dynamics of mineral N\ud species transformations and their mobilities\ud relevant to assessing risks to drainage\ud water.



ABSTRACT\ud The biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen has been studied in detail at a predominantly acid\ud grassland nature reserve, Hob Moor, just outside the city of York in the UK. Because of the\ud risk of more frequent and/or extended summer droughts as a potential consequence of\ud climate change, particular attention was paid to the influence of drying and rewetting upon\ud the mobility of mineral N species. It was found that ammonification proceeds after net\ud nitrification has ceased, and that subsequently nitrate is immobilized when the drying period\ud is protracted. It is suggested that this is probably due to uptake by drought-tolerant microorganisms.\ud The experimental work showed that much of the first flush of nitrate after a\ud period of drying is therefore attributable to stored nitrate, as long as the drying out period is\ud not excessively long.\ud The mobility of ammonium-N in soils from Hob Moor was studied to test the\ud hypothesis that in the heavily N-impacted soils at the site it would be more mobile than most\ud soil scientists would predict, by measuring adsorption/desorption characteristics. The\ud absorption isotherms confirmed that ammonium in these soils is potentially mobile, and\ud when mobilized below the rooting depth may pass to the adjacent stream around the edge of\ud the site. This helps explain the high ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations observed in\ud this stream.\ud A developing interest in the Gaia hypothesis prompted the author to make a brief\ud preliminary investigation of the idea that deciduous trees have evolved naturally to provide a\ud close match between the dynamics of N release by litter decomposition and the dynamics of\ud plant N requirement. The experiment showed that initially the fresh litter with a high C/N\ud ratio immobilized nitrate especially in the forest soil. Under the relatively warm conditions\ud of the experiment decomposition was rapid, and the immobilization was not sustained as\ud would be predicted. Further evaluation of this concept is advocated.\ud The extent of immobilization by litter prompted a study of long-term seasonality of\ud trends in nitrate concentration throughout the River Derwent in North Yorkshire using data\ud obtained from the Environment Agency. It was thought that a ban on straw burning in 1993\ud might have reduced winter annual nitrate concentration peaks and possibly increased summer\ud minima. The data partly supported this idea, but the timing match was not perfect, and it was\ud thought that the foot and mouth disease impact and farmers’ responses to environmental\ud concerns and policy and to increasing fertilizer and energy costs were probably also\ud important.\ud Finally a study was made of the importance of storage conditions upon extractable\ud ammonium and nitrate concentrations in soils. Surprisingly nitrification was not sufficiently\ud inhibited in some soils stored under refrigerated conditions overnight, and it is concluded\ud that volumetric sampling and immediate extraction in the field may be a preferred option

Publisher: Environment (York)
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:1065

Suggested articles



  1. (1997). A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments.
  2. (1998). A Most Probable Number method (MPN) for the estimation of cell numbers of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria in soil.
  3. (1987). A new perfusion system for the measurement and characterization of potential rates of soil nitrification.
  4. (2005). A novel modelling approach for spatial and temporal variations in nitrate concentrations in an Nimpacted UK small upland river basin,
  5. (2008). A reappraisal of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle: What can we learn by extracting concepts from Gaia theory?
  6. (1998). A semi-distributed integrated nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in catchments (INCA): Part I – model structure and process equations.
  7. (1998). A semi-distributed integrated nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in catchments (INCA): Part II – application to large river basins in South Wales and eastern England.
  8. (2003). Ammonia oxidizing bacteria along meadow-to-forest transects in the Oregon Cascade Mountains.
  9. (2001). Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a model for molecular microbial ecological research.
  10. (2006). An integrated modelling and multicriteria analysis approach to managing nitrate diffuse pollution: 2. A case study for a chalk catchment in England.
  11. (1987). Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands.
  12. (2000). Analysis of nitrogen cycling in a forest stream during autumn using a 15N-tracer addition.
  13. (2006). Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils.
  14. (2008). Are calcareous soil ecosystems and associated drainage waters less susceptible to damage from winter road salting than acidic soil ecosystems?
  15. (1983). Assessment of nitrogen status of soils for the growth of cereal crops. I. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, composition and yield of spring barley.
  16. (1983). Assessment of nitrogen status of soils for the growth of cereal crops. II. Use of plant and soil analysis to diagnose nitrogen status of spring barley,
  17. (2005). Autotrophic ammoniaoxidizing bacteria contribute minimally to nitrification in a nitrogen impacted forested ecosystem.
  18. (1991). Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in response to clear-cutting northern hardwood forest.
  19. (1989). Autotrophic nitrification in bacteria.
  20. (1976). Autumnal processing of dissolved organic matter in a small woodland stream ecosystem.
  21. (2005). Bacterial community structure and metabolic profiles in a forest soil exhibiting spatially variable net nitrate production.
  22. (1997). Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change.
  23. (2009). Characterization of the water soluble soil organic pool following the rewetting of dry soil in a drought-prone tall grass prairie.
  24. (1982). Chemical characterization of two extracts used in the determination of available soil nitrogen.
  25. (2001). Chemical trends at lakes and streams in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network, 1988–2000: Evidence for recovery at a national scale.
  26. (2004). Clearcutting affects the ammonia-oxidising community differently in limed and non-limed coniferous forest soils.
  27. (2008). Climate control on sulphate and nitrate concentrations in alpine streams of northern Italy along a nitrogen saturation gradient.
  28. (1966). Comparison and evaluation of laboratory methods of obtaining an index of soil nitrogen availability.
  29. (1991). Competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in dual energy-limited chemostats.
  30. (1995). Competition for ammonium between plant roots and nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria and the effects of protozoan grazing.
  31. (1993). Content of total organic carbon in Finnish lakes and its relationship to catchment characteristics.
  32. (1993). Controlling losses of nitrate by changing land use, in:
  33. (2001). Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Model for SoilPlant-Atmosphere Systems.
  34. (1995). Critical loads for nitrogen: Surface waters, in:
  35. (1999). Cycles of Soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Micronutrients.
  36. (1988). Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: ecological and geochemical significance.
  37. (1998). Denitrification in soil terminology and methodology (review).
  38. (1982). Determination of ATP in soils: effect of soil treatments.
  39. (1954). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali soils.
  40. (1999). Dissolved organic carbon as an indicator of the scale of watershed influence on lakes and rivers.
  41. (2006). Distinguishing nitrous oxide production from nitrification and denitrification on the basis of isotopomer abundances.
  42. (2008). Drying and rewetting effects on C and N mineralization and microbial activity in surface and subsurface California grassland soils.
  43. (2008). Drying and rewetting effects on soil microbial community composition and nutrient leaching.
  44. (2010). Drying rewetting events reduce C and N losses from a Norway spruce forest floor.
  45. (1987). Ecology of nitrification and denitrification. The Nitrogen ans Sulphur Cycles (Eds.
  46. (1999). Effect of integrated use of fertilizers and organic manures on soil and crop productivity under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) based cropping system.
  47. (2008). Effect of long-term changes in soil chemistry induced by road salt applications on N-transformations in roadside soils.
  48. (1981). Effect of simulated acid rain on nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in forest soils.
  49. (2005). Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains,
  50. (1998). Effects of acidity on mineralization: pHdependence of organic matter mineralization in weakly acidic soils.
  51. (2008). Effects of broadleaf woodland cover on streamwater chemistry and risk assessments of streamwater acidification in acidsensitive catchments in the UK.
  52. (2004). Effects of drying and rewetting on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils and incorporated residues. Nutrient Cycling in
  53. (2002). Effects of drying–rewetting frequency on soil carbon and nitrogen transformations.
  54. (1990). Effects of extraction methods and sample storage on properties of solutions obtained from forested spodosols.
  55. (2008). Effects of litter addition and warming on soil carbon, nutrient pools and microbial communities in a subarctic heath ecosystem.
  56. (1997). Effects of repeated straw incorporation on crop fertilizer nitrogen requirements, soil mineral nitrogen and nitrate leaching losses.
  57. (2010). Effects of soil moisture and temperature on CO2 and CH4 soil atmosphere exchange of various land use/cover types in a semi–arid grassland in Inner Mongolia,
  58. (1998). Emission of nitrous oxide and other trace gases during composting of grass and green waste.
  59. (2001). Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch. The Transformation of World Food Production.
  60. (2002). Environmental Physiology of Plants.
  61. (2007). Estimating nutrient concentrations from catchment characteristics across the UK. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
  62. (1990). Evaluation of joint toxicity of chlorine and ammonia to aquatic communities.
  63. (2008). Extent and causes of 3-D spatial variations in potential N mineralization and the risk of ammonium and nitrate leaching from an Nimpacted permanent grassland near
  64. (1968). Extractable organic nitrogen and nitrogen mineralization in soils.
  65. (2003). Factors affecting ammonium uptake in streams- an interbiome perspective.
  66. (1971). Factors affecting nitrification kinetics.
  67. (1971). Factors affecting the accumulation of nitrate in soil water and plants.
  68. (2009). Factors controlling potentially mineralizable and recalcitrant soil organic matter in humid Asia.
  69. (1999). Factors influencing nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems: Advances in our understanding since the mid 1980s, in:
  70. (2002). Factors regulating nitrification in aquatic sediments: effects of organic carbon, nitrogen availability, and pH.
  71. (1993). Fallow and Sesbania effects on soil N dynamics in lowland rice-based cropping systems.
  72. (1978). Field testing of several nitrogen availability indexes.
  73. (2004). GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate, nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin, the Humber. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,
  74. (1997). Global Warming The Complete Briefing.
  75. (1996). Glossary of Soil Science Terms. Soil Science Society of America,
  76. High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests.
  77. (2004). Hob Moor: Historic Stray and Local Nature Reserve.
  78. How important is plant litter to the regulation of mineral-N leaching to streams in winter? An observations-led experimental approach. Soil Use and Management, In press.
  79. How stable are soils for the determinations of available N? Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis.
  80. (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Sources and consequences.
  81. (2007). Hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of storm water filters under variable wetting and drying regimes.
  82. (1993). Immobilization of ammonium and nitrate and their interaction with native N in three Illinois Mollisols. Biology and Fertility of Soils,
  83. (2010). Impact of litter quality on mineralization processes in managed and abandoned pasture soils in Southern Ecuador.
  84. (2003). In situ soil nitrogen mineralisation in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand: effects of increased nitrogen input.
  85. (2003). Influence of drying-rewetting frequency on soil bacterial community structure.
  86. (2007). Influence of forestry, environmental change and climatic variability on the hydrology, hydrochemistry and residence times of upland catchments.
  87. (2008). Influence of nitrite accumulation in association with seasonal patterns and mineralization of soil nitrogen in a semi-arid pine forest.
  88. (1996). Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands.
  89. (1997). Influence of protozoa and nutrient availability on nitrification rates in subsurface sediments.
  90. (2001). Influence of tree species and ground vegetation on nitrification in an acid forest soil.
  91. (1987). Influence of vegetation and hydrology on the humus budgets of Labrador lakes.
  92. (1965). Inorganic forms of nitrogen, Chapter 84 in:
  93. (1997). Integrating agricultural nutrient management with environmental objectives - current state and future prospects.
  94. (1995). Ionic balances of reciprocally transplanted forest soils,
  95. (1998). Land use, liming and the mobilization of potentially toxic metals.
  96. (2007). Leaching of nitrogen from subtropical soils as affected by nitrification potential and base cations.
  97. (1998). Leaf litter as a source of dissolved organic carbon in streams.
  98. Litter effects on ammonium dynamics in an acid soil under grassland.
  99. (2006). Litter quality effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in temperate alley cropping systems.
  100. (1984). Local variation of nitrate levels in the Exe basin,
  101. (2008). Long-term nitrate increases in two oligotrophic lakes, due to the leaching of atmospherically deposited N from moorland ranker soils.
  102. (2003). Long-term straw management effects on yields of sequential wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops in clay and silty clay loam soils in England.
  103. (1995). Mapping and Modelling of Critical Loads for Nitrogen - A Workshop Report. (Eds.) Grange-over-Sands,
  104. (1964). Measurement of nitrogen supplying power of soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate.
  105. (2006). Microbial biomass dynamics in recently air-dried and rewetted soils compared to others stored air-dry for up to 103 years.
  106. (1987). Microbial biomass response to a rapid increase in water potential when dry soil is wetted.
  107. (1993). Microbial biomass responses to soil drying and rewetting: The fate of fast- and slow-growing micro-organisms in soils from different climates.
  108. (1999). Microbial C and N transformations during drying and rewetting of coniferous forest floor material.
  109. (2007). Mineralization and carbon turnover in a subarctic heath soil as affected by warming and additional litter.
  110. (2004). Mineralization and nitrification patterns at eight northeastern USA forested research sites.
  111. (2004). N deposition, N transformation and N leaching in acid forest soils.
  112. (2006). Nitrate concentrations in river waters of the upper Thames and its tributaries.
  113. (1993). Nitrate dynamics during the aerobic soil phase in low land rice-based cropping systems.
  114. (2008). Nitrate transport in chalk catchments: Monitoring, modelling and policy implications.
  115. (1993). Nitrate: processes, patterns and management,
  116. (1978). Nitrification activities and the changes in the populations of nitrifying bacteria in soil perfused at two different H-ion concentrations.
  117. (1998). Nitrification and denitrification in soil from a clearcut Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand.
  118. (2002). Nitrification in a vertisol and its relationship to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen at depth.
  119. (2001). Nitrification in acid soils: micro-organisms and mechanisms.
  120. (1990). Nitrification in coniferous forest soils.
  121. (1998). Nitrification in organic and mineral soil layers in coniferous forests in response to acidity.
  122. (2000). Nitrification in stream sediment bio films: The role of ammonium concentration and DOC quality.
  123. (1995). Nitrification in the hyporheic zone of desert stream ecosystem.
  124. (2000). Nitrofication in soil – terminology and methodology ( review).
  125. (2008). Nitrogen cycle disruption through the application of de-icing salts on upland highways.
  126. (2000). Nitrogen cycling in a forest stream determined by a 15N tracer addition.
  127. (1999). Nitrogen deposition: Source, impacts and responses in natural and semi-natural ecosystems, in:
  128. (1991). Nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystem: questions of productivity, vegetational changes and ecosystem stability.
  129. (2005). Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in a mixed-conifer forest in southern California: controlling factors, fluxes, and nitrogen fertilization response at a high and low nitrogen deposition site.
  130. (1997). Nitrogen mineralization and productivity in 50 hardwood and conifer stands on diverse soils.
  131. (2005). Nitrogen retention across a gradient of 15N addition to an unpolluted temperate forest soil in Chile.
  132. (2000). Nitrogen saturation and retention in forested watersheds of the Catskill Mountains,
  133. (1998). Nitrogen saturation experiments (NITREX) in coniferous forest ecosystems in Europe: a summary of results.
  134. (1989). Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems.
  135. (1998). Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems - hypotheses revisited.
  136. (2008). Nitrous oxide emissions and dynamics of soil nitrogen under 15N-labelled cow urine and dung patches on a sandy grassland soil.
  137. (1998). Non-biomass soil organic N-The substrate for N mineralization flushes following soil drying-rewetting and for organic N rendered CaCl2-extractable upon soil drying.
  138. (1998). Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen.
  139. (2005). Nutrient hydrochemistry from a groundwater-dominated catchment: The Hampshire Avon,
  140. (2000). Nutrient transformations.
  141. (1993). Observations on changes in nitrate concentrations along streams in upland moorland catchments.
  142. (2006). One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils.
  143. (1993). Overview – the nitrate issue, in:
  144. (1994). Parafluvial nitrogen dynamics in a desert stream ecosystem.
  145. (2006). Potential impacts of climate change on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas fluxes in forests: a soil transfer study.
  146. (2001). Principles of Plant Nutrition. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  147. (1995). Quantification of ammonium sorption in acid forest soils by sorption isotherms. Plant and Soil,
  148. (2005). Rapid nitrate loss and denitrification in a temperate river floodplain.
  149. (2004). Reforestation and topography affect montane soil properties, nitrogen pools, and nitrogen transformations in Hawaii.
  150. (1999). Regulation of nitrification in the land-ocean contact area of the Rhône River plume
  151. (2000). Release of intracellular solutes by four soil bacteria exposed to dilution stress.
  152. (1985). Response of microbial biomass to alternate moist and dry conditions in a soil incubated with 14C and 15N-labelled plant material.
  153. (2006). Response of soil C and N transformations to tannin fractions originating from Scots pine and Norway spruce needles.
  154. (2010). Response of soil microbial communities and the production of plant-available nitrogen to a two-year rainfall manipulation in the New Jersey Pinelands.
  155. (2004). Responses of nitrification and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to reciprocal transfers of soil between adjacent coniferous forest and meadow vegetation in the cascade mountains of Oregon.
  156. (2009). Rewetting and litter addition influence mineralisation and microbial communities in soils from a semi-arid intermittent stream.
  157. (2007). Role of soil drying in nitrogen mineralization and microbial community function in semi-arid grasslands of north-west Australia.
  158. (1987). Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients.
  159. (1999). Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pondbreeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest,
  160. (1991). Simulation of nitrogen dynamics and biomass production in winter wheat using the Danish simulation model DAISY.
  161. (1979). Soil Chemistry.
  162. (1992). Soil drying and rewetting, or freezing and thawing, affects soil solution composition.
  163. (2004). Soil Management Problems and Solutions.
  164. (2003). Soil microbial biomass and nitrogen transformations among five tree species of the Catskill Mountains,
  165. (1989). Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry.
  166. (2002). Soil nitrogen transformations and the role of light fraction organic matter in forest soils.
  167. (1989). Soil nutrient availability. in: Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation, edited by
  168. (1968). Soil-Plant Relationships.
  169. (1991). Some results of nitrogen simulations with model ANIMO.
  170. (1990). Spatial and temporal scales of dissolved organic carbon in streams and rivers.
  171. Spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations in the River Derwent, North Yorkshire, and its need for NVZ status,
  172. (2002). Spatial variation in net nitrate production in a N-saturated coniferous forest soil.
  173. (1979). Statistical analysis of the nitrate concentrations from the River Frome (Dorset) from the period 1965-76.
  174. (2004). Temperature sensitivity of mineral N transformation rates, and heterotrophic nitrification: possible factors controlling the post-disturbance mineral N flush in forest floors.
  175. (2000). Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous forest soil.
  176. (1991). The biochemistry of nitrifying bacteria. Pages 171-200, In: Variations in Autotrophic
  177. (1989). The components of nitrogen availability assessments in forest soils.
  178. (1987). The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle.
  179. (1980). The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrification.
  180. (1988). The effect of increased nutrient availability on vegetation dynamics in wet heathland.
  181. (1990). The effect of land use on nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended sediment delivery in lowland agricultural catchments, in: Thornes,
  182. (2003). The effect of nitrogen deposition on nitrification, carbon and nitrogen mineralisation and litter C:N ratios in oak (Quercus robur L.) forests. Forest Ecology and Management,
  183. (1978). The effect of soil sample handling between collection and drying on nitrate concentration.
  184. (2007). The effects of drying and wetting on pollutant removal by storm water filters.
  185. (1983). The effects of liming and soil pH on carbon and nitrogen contained in the soil biomass.
  186. (1989). The humic content of lake water and its relationship to watershed and lake morphology.
  187. (2001). The ICBM family of analytically solved models of soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass dynamics - descriptions and application examples.
  188. (1984). The impact of nitrification on soil acidification and cation leaching in a red alder ecosystem.
  189. (2009). The importance of ammonium mobility in nitrogen-impacted unfertilized grasslands: A critical reassessment,
  190. (1990). The importance of autotrophic versus heterotrophic oxidation of atmospheric ammonium in forest ecosystems with acid soil.
  191. (2004). The influence of catchment characteristics on the seasonality of nitrogen species concentrations in upland rivers of Northern Scotland.
  192. (2002). The influence of soil pH on denitirification: progress towards the understanding of this interaction over the last 50 years.
  193. (2003). The nitrogen cascade.
  194. (1999). The relative importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in a conifer forest soil as measured by 15N tracer and pool dilution techniques.
  195. (1999). The responsive C and N biogeochemistry of the temperate forest floor.
  196. (2006). The Revenge of Gaia.
  197. (1992). The role of nitrate in the acidification of streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York.
  198. (1999). The role of plant and soil processes in determining the fate of atmospheric nitrogen. In:
  199. (1995). The use of dynamic models for the determination of critical loads for nitrogen – developments since Lökeberg,
  200. (1985). Theoretical analysis of decomposition of heterogeneous substrates.
  201. (1996). Theoretical Ecosystem Ecology. Understanding Element Cycles.
  202. (2006). Towards an improved understanding of the nitrate dynamics in lowland, permeable river systems: Applications of INCA-N.
  203. (1958). Tracer studies on nitrogen transformations in soil with special attention to mineralization-immobilization relationships.
  204. (2001). Transboundary Air Pollution: Acidification, Eutrophication and Groundlevel Ozone in the UK: Report by the National Expert Group on Transboundary Air Pollution for DEFRA,
  205. (1994). UN-ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Working Group for Effects,
  206. (1993). Understanding the soil nitrogen cycle.
  207. (2003). Using quantity/intensity relationships to asses the potential for ammonium leaching in a vertisol.
  208. (2009). Variations in corn yield and nitrogen uptake in relation to soil attributes and nitrogen availability indices.
  209. (1999). Wet dry cycles affect DOC in two California agricultural soils.
  210. (2004). What factors control soil profile nitrogen storage?
  211. (1997). Whole catchment studies on nitrogen cycling: Nitrogen from mountains to fjords.
  212. (2002). Whole-system estimates of nitrification and nitrate uptake in streams of the Hubbard Brook experimental forest.
  213. (2008). Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid sensitive catchments in southern Norway.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.