Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Understanding perspective taking and its role in relation to teamworking and diversity

By Thomas Stephen Calvard

Abstract

In the current thesis I focus on perspective taking as a fundamental social process guiding productive and cooperative interactions within and between work teams. I define perspective taking as the effortful and effective understanding of diverse cognitions, emotions, and identities tied to particular targets in particular situations.\ud Little attention has been given to perspective taking as a situational or state concept that can vary across groups, time, and contexts. Previous research has typically treated it as a stable personality difference or a temporary mindset induced in laboratory settings. In this thesis, I conduct three studies with data collected from Masters of Business Administration (MBA) study teams and one final study with military teams to examine how perspective taking supports effective teamwork interactions.\ud In the first study, I use data collected from MBA team members to develop and validate three self-report, state indicator measures of active perspective taking: effort, empathic concern, and positive attributions. In the second study, I demonstrate positive reciprocal relationships over time between the three perspective taking indicators and cooperative team member outcomes. In the third study, I show that entire MBA teams can exhibit shared perspective taking at the team level of analysis. The results also confirm that team perspective taking indicators mediate between team diversity and team states of potency and reflexivity. In the final study, I develop a self-report measure of team perspective taking effectiveness or understanding and show that it is positively related to perceived performance, helping, and morale in military teams. I show that team perspective taking effectiveness is supported by elaboration of task perspectives and effective perspective taking for the external targets of other teams.\ud The practical and research implications of the studies for understanding situational perspective taking, team effectiveness, and finding value in team diversity are discussed.\u

Publisher: Management School (Sheffield)
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:etheses.whiterose.ac.uk:1167

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2005). A “Constituent Approach to the Study of Perspective-Taking. What are its Fundamental Elements? In
  2. (1998). A Balance Theory of Wisdom.
  3. (1998). A Brief Tutorial on the Development of Measures for Use in Survey Questionnaires.
  4. (2006). A Globalization Simulation to Teach Corporate Social Responsibility: Design Features and Analysis of Student Reasoning.
  5. (2003). A Healthy Divide: Subgroups as a Stimulus for Team Learning Behavior.
  6. (2002). A Meta-Analysis of Team-Efficacy, Potency, and Performance: Interdependence and Level of Analysis as Moderators of Observed Relationships.
  7. (2007). A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Goal Orientation Nomological net.
  8. (1995). A Multimethod Examination of the Benefits and Determinants of Intragroup conflict.
  9. (2007). A New Model of Work Role Performance: Positive Behaviour in Uncertain and Interdependent Contexts.
  10. (2004). A New Perspective on Perspective Taking: A Multidimensional Approach to Conceptualizing an Attitude.
  11. (1997). A Qualitative Analysis of Conflict Types and Dimensions in Organizational Groups.
  12. (2008). A Return to the use of Emotion and Reflection.
  13. (1978). A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design.
  14. (2009). A Tale of Three Perspectives: Examining Post-hoc Statistical Techniques for Detection and Correction of Common Method Variance.
  15. (2001). A Temporally Based Framework and Taxonomy of Team Processes.
  16. (2008). A Tenuous Link: Psychological Contracts and Perspective-Taking Between a Promotion Agency and its Workers.
  17. (1996). A Theory of Individual Creative Action in Multiple Social Domains.
  18. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations,
  19. (2005). A Theory of Team Coaching.
  20. (2002). Absorptive Capacity: A Review, Reconceptualization, and Extension.
  21. (1990). Acts of Meaning.
  22. (2007). Addressing Moderated Mediation Hypotheses: Theory, Methods, and Prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research,
  23. (2007). Adult Theory of Mind, Cooperation, Machiavellianism: The Effect of Mindreading on Social Relations. Personality and Individual Differences,
  24. (2007). Agreeableness, Empathy, and Helping: A Person × Situation Perspective.
  25. (2000). Agreement, Non-Independence, and Reliability: Implications for Data Aggregation and Analysis. In
  26. (2007). An Additional Antecedent of Empathic Concern: Valuing the Welfare of the Person in Need.
  27. (1988). An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and its Assessment.
  28. (2009). Angry, Guilty and Conflicted: Injustice Towards Coworkers Heightens Emotional Labor Through Cognitive and Emotional Mechanisms.
  29. (2008). Answers to 20 Questions About Interrater Reliability and Interrater Agreement.
  30. (1993). Assessing Diversity Climate: A Field Study of Reactions to Employer Efforts to Promote Diversity.
  31. (2002). Assessing the Complexity of Diversity Perceptions: Breath, Depth, and Balance.
  32. (2006). Attribution Theory in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Review. In:
  33. (2003). Backing up Behaviours in Teams: The Role of Personality and Legitimacy of Need.
  34. (2000). Being Empathic: The Role of Motivation to Empathize and the Nature of Target Emotions.
  35. (1998). Beyond Relational Demography: Time and the Effects of Surface and Deep-Level Diversity On Work Group Cohesion.
  36. (1999). Beyond Self-Management: Antecedents and Consequences of Team Empowerment.
  37. (2006). Boundary Spanners‟ Identification, Intergroup Contact, and Effective Intergroup Relations.
  38. (1999). Breaking the Frame: An Analysis of Strategic Cognition and Decision Making Under Uncertainty.
  39. Bridging Faultlines by Valuing Diversity: Diversity Beliefs, Information Elaboration, and Performance in Diverse Work Groups.
  40. (1992). Bridging the Boundary: External Activity and Performance in Organizational Teams.
  41. (2008). Bringing in the Experts: How Team Composition and Collaborative 307 Planning Jointly Shape Analytic Effectiveness.
  42. (2008). Building Better Workplaces Through Individual Perspective-Taking: A Fresh Look at a Fundamental Human Process.
  43. (2007). Building Genuine Trust Through Interpersonal Emotion Management: A Threat Regulation Model of Trust and Collaboration Across Boundaries.
  44. (2007). Building Theoretical and Empirical Bridges Across Levels: Multilevel Research
  45. (1994). Career-Related Antecedents and Outcomes of Job Rotation.
  46. (1991). Change in the Small Group: A Dissipative Structure Perspective. Human Relations,
  47. (2005). Changing Faces: Professional Image Construction in Diverse Organizational Settings.
  48. (1991). Close Relationships as Including Other in the Self.
  49. (2008). Cognition in Organizations.
  50. (2004). Cognitions Associated with Attempts to Empathize: How do we imagine the Perspective of Another? Personality and
  51. (2000). Cognitive Load and Perspective-Taking: Applying the AutomaticControlled Distinction to Verbal Communication.
  52. (1999). Cohesion Over Time in a Peacekeeping Medical Task Force.
  53. (1976). Collected Papers on Moral Development and Moral Education.
  54. (2007). Collective Cognition in Action: Accumulation, Interaction, Examination, and Accommodation in The Development and Operation of Group Efficacy Beliefs in The Workplace.
  55. (1993). Collective Mind in Organizations: Heedful Interrelating on Flight Decks.
  56. (2003). Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies.
  57. (1996). Common Practices in Structural Equation Modelling. In
  58. (2002). Comparing Alternative Conceptualizations of Functional Diversity in Management Teams: Process and Performance Effects.
  59. (2000). Computer-Aided Learning for People with Autism: A Framework for Research and Development.
  60. (2003). Conflict Management and Task Reflexivity for Team In-Role and Extra-Role Performance In China.
  61. (2004). Considering Rational Self-Interest as a Disposition: Organizational Implications of Other Orientation.
  62. (1984). Considering the Opposite: A Corrective Strategy for Social Judgement.
  63. (2007). Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations,
  64. (2007). Cooperative Outcome Interdependence, Task Reflexivity, and Team Effectiveness: A Motivated Information Processing Perspective.
  65. (1992). Coordination of Knowledge in Communication: Effects of Speakers‟ Assumptions About What Others Know.
  66. (2003). Core Self-Evaluations: A Review of the Trait and its Role in Job Satisfaction and Job Performance.
  67. (2001). Crafting a Job: Revisioning Employees as Active Crafters of Their Work.
  68. (2002). Creating and Reducing Intergroup Conflict: The Role of Perspective-Taking in Affecting Outgroup Evaluations. In
  69. (2000). Creating Hybrid Team Cultures: An Empirical Test of International Team Functioning.
  70. (2010). Cross-Understanding: Implications for Group Cognition and Performance.
  71. (2001). Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes.
  72. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling,
  73. (2007). DanielSoper.com Statistics Calculators Version 2.0 (n.d.). Retrieved May 10th 2010 from Daniel Soper Website: http://www.danielsoper.com/statcalc/
  74. (1998). Data Analysis in Social Psychology. In
  75. (2007). Deep-Level Composition Variables as Predictors of Team Performance: A Meta-Analysis.
  76. (1998). Demographic Diversity and Faultlines: The Compositional Dynamics of Organizational Groups.
  77. (1996). Demographic Diversity, Conflict, and Work Group Outcomes: An Intervening Process Theory.
  78. (1998). Demography and Diversity in Organizations: A Review of 40
  79. (2009). Developing a Theory of the Strategic Core of Teams: A Role Composition Model of Team Performance.
  80. (1991). Development and Validation of a Scale for Measuring State Self-Esteem.
  81. (2008). Dialogic or Dialectic? The Significance of Ontological Assumptions in
  82. (1997). Diversified Mentoring Relationships in Organizations: A Power Perspective.
  83. (2003). Diversity and Team Outcomes: The Moderating Effects of Outcome Interdependence and Group Longevity and the Mediating Effect of Reflexivity.
  84. (2007). Diversity Training: Putting Theory into Practice.
  85. (2000). Dyadic Communication Relationships in Organizations: An Attribution/Expectancy Approach.
  86. (2006). Dyadic Data Analysis.
  87. (1996). Effect of Perspective-Taking on the Cognitive Representation of Persons: A Merging of Self and Other.
  88. (1977). Effects of Controversy on Cognitive Perspective Taking.
  89. (2003). Egocentrism Versus Protocentrism: The Status of Self in Social Prediction.
  90. (1972). Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Toward a Disabled Person.
  91. (1975). Empathy and Attribution: Turning Actors into Observers.
  92. (2002). Empathy and Complex Task Performance: Two Routes to Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly,
  93. (2007). Empathy and Conflict Resolution in Friendship Relations Among Adolescents.
  94. (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge:
  95. (1990). Empathy and the Self: Cognitive and Emotional Influences on the Evaluation of Negative Affect in Others.
  96. (2002). Empathy Neglect: Reconciling the Spotlight Effect and the Correspondence Bias.
  97. (1996). Empathy: A Social Psychological Approach.
  98. (1963). Empathy: Its Nature and Uses.
  99. (2002). Empathy: Its Ultimate and Proximate Bases.
  100. (2010). Employee Learning Orientation, Transformational Leadership, and Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role of 291 Employee Creative Self-Efficacy.
  101. (1970). Encounter: Group Processes for Interpersonal Growth.
  102. (2007). Enhancing Customer Service: Perspective Taking in a Call Centre.
  103. (2003). Everyday Mind Reading. New York: Prometheus Books.
  104. (2007). Exploring Positive Relationships at Work: Building a Theoretical and Research Foundation. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  105. (1999). Exploring the Black Box: An Analysis of Work Group Diversity, Conflict, and Performance.
  106. (2004). Exploring the Relationships Between Organizational Virtuousness and Performance.
  107. (2008). Facing Differences With an Open Mind: Openness to Experience,Salience of Intragroup Differences, and Performance of Diverse Work Groups.
  108. (1992). Feeling Good-Doing Good: A Conceptual Analysis of the Mood At Work-Organizational Spontaneity Relationship.
  109. (2001). First Offers as Anchors: The Role of Perspective-Taking and Negotiator Focus.
  110. (1998). Fit Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling: Sensitivity to Under Parameterized Model Misspecification.
  111. (2000). Foci and Correlates of Organizational Identification.
  112. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience.
  113. (1998). Functional Relations Among Constructs in the Same Content Domain at Different Levels of Analysis: A Typology of Composition Models.
  114. (2004). General Mental Ability in the World of Work: Occupational Attainment and Job Performance.
  115. (1997). Group Decision-Making and Effectiveness: Unexplored Boundaries. In
  116. Group Diversity and Group Identification: The Moderating Role of Diversity Beliefs.
  117. (2008). Group Information Elaboration and Group Decision Making: The Role of Shared Task Representations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,
  118. (2007). Group Learning.
  119. (1999). How can you do it?” Dirty Work and the Challenge of Constructing a Positive Identity.
  120. (1999). How we Know – and Sometimes Misjudge – What Others Know: Imputing One‟s own Knowledge to Others.
  121. (1986). Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory.
  122. (1902). Human Nature and the Social Order.
  123. (1996). I've Been There Too": Effect on Empathy of Prior Experience with a Need. Personality and
  124. (2007). Imagining Intergroup Contact can Improve Intergroup Attitudes. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations,
  125. (2001). Impact of Highly and Less Job-Related Diversity on Work Group Cohesion and Performance: A Meta-Analysis.
  126. (2006). Implementation Intentions and Goal Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of Effects and Processes.
  127. (1994). In Over our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life.
  128. (2008). Increasing Interest in Social Studies: Social Perspective Taking and Self-Efficacy in Stimulating Simulations.
  129. (1977). Inequality and Heterogeneity.
  130. (1993). Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion.
  131. (1967). Interaction Ritual.
  132. (2005). Interactions Within Groups and Subgroups: The Effects of Demographic Faultlines.
  133. (1995). Interdependence and Group Effectiveness.
  134. (2005). Intergroup Conflict and Intergroup Effectiveness in Organizations: Theory and Scale Development.
  135. (1998). Intergroup Contact Theory.
  136. (1992). Interpretive Barriers to Successful Product Innovation in Large Firms.
  137. (1980). Intra-Organizational Influence Tactics: Explorations in Getting one‟s own way.
  138. (1997). Is Empathy-Induced Helping due to Self-Other Merging?
  139. (2006). Leadership in Multi-Team Systems.
  140. (1989). Longitudinal Field Methods for Studying Reciprocal Relationships in Organizational Behavior Research: Toward Improved Causal Analysis.
  141. (1996). Longitudinal Studies in Organizational Stress Research: A review of the Literature With Reference to Methodological Issues.
  142. (2008). Looking Through the Eyes of the Powerful.
  143. (2001). Making Sense of the Organization.
  144. (2002). Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life.
  145. (1999). Making use of Difference: Diversity, Debate, and Decision Comprehensiveness in Top Management Teams.
  146. (1991). Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness.
  147. (1995). Managing Diversity: New Broom or Old Hat?
  148. (2009). Managing Intractable Identity Conflicts.
  149. (2001). Maximizing Cross-Functional New Product Teams‟ Innovativeness and Constraint Adherence: A Conflict Communications Perspective.
  150. (1983). Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach.
  151. (1983). Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness.
  152. (2006). Method Variance in Organizational Research: Truth or Urban Legend?
  153. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society.
  154. (1995). Mood and Judgement: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM).
  155. (1996). Moral and Social Reasoning and Perspective Taking in Later Life: A Longitudinal Study.
  156. (1992). Moral Reasoning and Business Ethics: Implications for Research, Education, and Management.
  157. (2000). Motivation in Person Perception. Role of the Other‟s Perspective.
  158. (2008). Multicultural Experience Enhances Creativity: The When and how.
  159. (2000). Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods In Organizations.
  160. (2001). Multiteam Systems. In
  161. (2005). Myopic Biases in Strategic Social Prediction: Why Deadlines put Everyone Under More Pressure Than Everyone Else.
  162. (1996). Naive Realism in Everyday Life: Implications for Social Conflict and Misunderstanding. In
  163. (2006). Negotiating Relationally: the Dynamics of the Relational Self in Negotiations.
  164. (1961). On Becoming a Person. A Psychotherapist‟s View of Psychotherapy.
  165. (2006). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences. Thousand Oaks: CA:
  166. (1997). Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and the Quantity and Quality of Work Group Performance.
  167. (1999). Organizational Culture Change: An Inter-group Attributional Analysis.
  168. (1967). Organizations in Action.
  169. (2000). Organizing Work to Support Relational Coordination.
  170. (2005). Out of Sight but not out of Mind: Managing Invisible Social Identities in the Workplace.
  171. (2010). Pathways for Positive Identity Construction at Work: Four Types of Positive Identity and the Building of Social Resources.
  172. (2007). Perceived Dissimilarity and Perspective-Taking Within Work Teams.
  173. (2007). Perceived Importance of Information: The Effects of Mentioning Information, Shared Information Bias, Ownership Bias, Reiteration, and Confirmation Bias. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations,
  174. (1995). Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in
  175. (2004). Perspective Taking as Egocentric Anchoring and Adjustment.
  176. (2005). Perspective Taking as the Royal Avenue to Empathy.
  177. (2008). Perspective-Takers Behave More Stereotypically.
  178. (2005). Perspective-Taking and Self-Other Overlap: Fostering Social Bonds and Facilitating Social Coordination. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations,
  179. (1991). Perspective-Taking in Communication:
  180. (1996). Perspective-Taking Judgements of Medication Acceptance:
  181. (2005). Perspective-Taking Judgments Among Young Adults, Middle-Aged, and Elderly People.
  182. (2000). Pooling Unshared Information: The Benefits of Knowing how Access to Information is Distributed Among Group Members. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,
  183. (1993). Potency in Groups: Articulating a Construct.
  184. (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behaviour in Work Teams.
  185. (2008). Publishing Laboratory Research in AMJ: A Question of When, not if.
  186. (2008). Putting the Altruism Back Into Altruism: The Evolution of Empathy.
  187. (2000). Reaching Out: Interpersonal Effectiveness and SelfActualization (7 th Edition).
  188. (2006). Recategorization and Subgroup Identification: Predicting and Preventing Threats From Common Ingroups.
  189. (2003). Recent Research on Team and Organizational Diversity: SWOT Analysis and Implications.
  190. (2007). Reflexivity in Teams: A Measure and Correlates.
  191. (2007). Relational Identity and Identification: Defining Ourselves Through Work Relationships.
  192. (2007). Relational Job Design and the Motivation to Make a Prosocial Difference.
  193. (2000). Relationality in Organizational Research: Exploring The Space Between.
  194. (1993). Relations Between Work Group Characteristics and Effectiveness: Implications for Designing Effective Work Groups.
  195. (2000). Role Clarity, Work Overload and Organizational Support:
  196. (1970). Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations.
  197. (1991). Role Taking, Self-Monitoring, and the Alignment of Conduct With Others.
  198. (1996). Searching for Common Threads: Understanding the Multiple Effects of Diversity in Organizational Groups.
  199. (2001). Seeing Another Viewpoint: Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Perspective-Taking.
  200. (2008). Seeing Through Their Eyes: When Majority Group Members Take Collective Action on
  201. (2005). Selecting Individuals in Team Settings: The Importance of Social Skills, Personality Characteristics, and Teamwork Knowledge.
  202. (1999). Self-Awareness and Feeling Transparent: Failing to Suppress Oneself.
  203. (1995). Self-Esteem as an Interpersonal Monitor: The Sociometer Hypothesis.
  204. (1967). Self-Perception: An Alternative Interpretation of Cognitive Dissonance Phenomena.
  205. (1986). Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects.
  206. (1985). Self-Symbolizing and the Neglect of Others‟ Perspectives.
  207. (1995). Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks:
  208. (2002). Social Capital: Prospects for a new Concept.
  209. (2002). Social Identity Complexity.
  210. (1989). Social Identity Theory and the Organization.
  211. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image.
  212. (2008). Solving the (Real) Other Minds Problem.
  213. (2003). Stakeholder Theory and Organizational Ethics.
  214. (1970). Strategic Interaction.
  215. (2008). Team Implicit Coordination Processes: A Team Knowledge-Based Approach.
  216. (2002). Team Innovation and Team Effectiveness: The Importance of Minority Dissent and Team Reflexivity.
  217. (2000). Team Structure and Performance: Assessing the Mediating Role of Intra-Team Process and the Moderating Role of Task Type.
  218. (2005). Teamwork in Multiteam Systems.
  219. (2006). The Actor-Observer Asymmetry in Attribution.
  220. (1991). The Altruism Question: Toward a Social Psychological Answer.
  221. (2002). The Antecedents and Consequences of Group Potency: A Longitudinal Investigation of Newly Formed Work Groups.
  222. (2000). The Application of Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Organizational Research. In
  223. (2003). The ASPIRe Model: Actualizing Social and Personal Identity Resources to Enhance Organizational Outcomes.
  224. (1997). The Black Box of Organizational Demography.
  225. (1998). The Conceptualization and Analysis of Change over Time: An Integrative Approach Incorporating Longitudinal Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis (LMACS) and Multiple Indicator Latent Growth Modeling (MLGM).
  226. (1997). The Contingent Value of Social Capital.
  227. (2008). The Critical Role of Conflict Resolution in Teams: A Close Look at the Links Between Conflict Type, Conflict Management Strategies, and Team Outcomes.
  228. (1996). The Current State of Empathy Research.
  229. (2004). The Development and Analysis of a Measure of Group Faultlines.
  230. (1984). The Development and Enforcement of Group Norms.
  231. (2005). The Development of Dialectical Thinking as an Approach to Integration.
  232. (1986). The Distinction Between Sympathy and Empathy: To Call Forth a Concept, a Word is Needed.
  233. (2007). The Downside of Self-Management: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Conflict on Trust, Autonomy and Task Interdependence in SelfManaging Teams.
  234. (2007). The Effect of Culture on Perspective Taking.
  235. (2001). The Effects of Apology and Perspective Taking on Interpersonal Forgiveness: A Dissonance-Attribution Model of Interpersonal Forgiveness.
  236. (2004). The Effects of Perspective-Taking on Prejudice: The Moderating Role of Self-Evaluation.
  237. (2007). The Effects of Team Diversity on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of Team Demography.
  238. (1997). The Effects of Top Management Team Size and Interaction Norms on Cognitive and Affective Conflict.
  239. (1997). The Emerging Conceptualization of Groups as Information Processors.
  240. (2001). The Experience of Empathy in Everyday Relationships: Cognitive and Affective Elements.
  241. (2008). The Good, the bad, and the Ugly: Politics and Politicians at Work.
  242. (2002). The Impact of CrossTraining on Team Effectiveness.
  243. (2000). The Impact of Identity Orientation on Individual and Organizational Outcomes in Demographically Diverse Settings.
  244. (2002). The Interactive Effects of Affective Demeanour, Cognitive Processes, and Perspective-Taking Focus on Helping Behavior.
  245. (2002). The Local and Variegated Nature of Learning in Organizations: A Group-Level Perspective.
  246. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling.
  247. (1999). The Migration of Organizational Functions to the Work Unit Level: Buffering, Spanning, and Bringing up Boundaries. Human Relations,
  248. (1986). The Moderator–Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.
  249. (1932). The Moral Judgement of the Child. London: Paul Kegan.
  250. (2009). The Motivating Potential of Teams: Test and Extension of Chen and Kanfer‟s
  251. (2001). The Mutual Knowledge Problem and its Consequences for Dispersed Collaboration.
  252. (1995). The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation.
  253. (2002). The Out-Group Must not be so bad After all: The Effects of Disclosure, Typicality, and Salience on Intergroup Bias.
  254. (1991). The Person and the Situation: Perspectives of Social Psychology. Philadelphia:
  255. (2001). The Practice of Citizenship: Embracing Diversity in Learning and Teaching with Implications for In-Service Training and Professional Development.
  256. (1978). The Processing of Social Perspectives: A Cognitive Model.
  257. (2007). The Psychology of Altruism.
  258. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations.
  259. (2010). The Psychology of Prosocial Behaviour: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping.
  260. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews.
  261. (1999). The Relationship Between WorkTeam Personality Composition and the Job Performance of Teams.
  262. (2007). The Role of Construction, Intuition, and Justification in Responding to Ethical Issues at Work: The Sensemaking-Intuition Model.
  263. (2009). The Role of Context in Work Team Diversity Research: A Meta- Analytic Review.
  264. (1999). The Role of Empathy in Improving Intergroup Relations.
  265. (1983). The Role of Perspective-Taking Ability in Negotiating Under Different Forms of Arbitration.
  266. (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.
  267. (2008). The Significance of Task Significance: Job Performance Effects, Relational Mechanisms, and Boundary Conditions.
  268. (1991). The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time.
  269. (2005). The Southwest Airlines Way: Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance.
  270. (2007). The Spyglass Self: A Model of Vicarious SelfPerception.
  271. (1999). The Structure and Function of Collective Constructs: Implications for Multilevel Research and Theory Development.
  272. (2004). The Utility of a Broader Conceptualization of Organizational Identification: Which Aspects Really Matter?
  273. (1992). Thinking is for Doing: Portraits of Social Cognition From Daguerreotype to Laserphoto.
  274. (2006). Thinking Within the Box: The Relational Processing Style Elicited by Counterfactual Mind-Sets.
  275. (2005). Three Puzzles of Mindreading.
  276. (2000). To Your Heart‟s Content: A Model of Affective Diversity in Top Management Teams.
  277. (2008). Top Management Team Functional Background Diversity and Firm Performance Examining The Roles of Team Member Collocation and Environmental Uncertainty.
  278. (1986). Transactive Memory: A Contemporary Analysis of the Group Mind. In
  279. (2006). Transformed Social Interaction: Exploring the Digital Plasticity of Avatars.
  280. (1999). Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives, Enduring Questions.
  281. (2007). Trust me...”: Psychological and Behavioural Predictors of Perceived Physician Empathy.
  282. (1996). Two Types of Bureaucracy: Enabling and Coercive.
  283. (2009). U.S. Capitalism: A Tarnished Model? Academy of Management Perspectives,
  284. (2009). Understanding Arts-Based Methods in Managerial Development.
  285. (2005). Understanding Conflict in Geographically Distributed Teams: The Moderating Effects of Shared Identity, Shared Context, and Spontaneous Communication.
  286. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (4 th Edition).
  287. (1996). Using Perspective Taking to Manage Conflict and Affect in Teams.
  288. (2009). Valuing Skill Differences: Perceived Skill Complementarity and Dyadic Helping Behaviour in Teams.
  289. (1973). Videotape and the Attribution Process: Reversing Actor‟s and Observer‟s Points of View.
  290. (1997). What Makes Teams Work: Group Effectiveness Research From the Shop Floor to the Executive Suite.
  291. (1986). What Will They Think of Next? Transformation Rules Used to Predict Other People‟s Thoughts and Feelings.
  292. (2007). What‟s the Difference? Diversity Constructs as Separation, Variety, or Disparity in Organizations.
  293. (2009). When and How Diversity Benefits Teams: The Importance of Team Members' Need for Cognition."
  294. (2006). When Perspective Taking Increases Taking. Reactive Egoism in Social Interaction.
  295. (2009). When Trying to Understand Detracts From Trying to Behave: Effects of Perspective Taking in Intergroup Interaction.
  296. (1999). Why Differences Make a Difference: A Field Study of Diversity, Conflict, and Performance In Workgroups.
  297. (2008). Why Does Writing About Important Values Reduce Defensiveness? Self-Affirmation and the Role of Positive OtherDirected Feelings.
  298. (2008). Why it Pays to get Inside the Head of Your Opponent. The Differential Effects of Perspective Taking and Empathy in Strategic Interactions.
  299. (2006). Work Group Diversity.
  300. (2006). Workplace Interpersonal Skills: A Review, Framework, and Research Agenda.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.